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Now we create a y axis with horizontal labels, and ticks every four units, using the syntax at=4*0: yaxismax as shown: axis(2, las=1, at=4*0: yaxismax) Now what does our graph look like? Using las=1 ensures horizontal labels, while las=3 ensures vertical labels. Now we create a box around the plot and then we add in the two new curves using the lines() command, using two different symbol types. main=2) Now we label the x and y axes using title(), along with xlab and ylab. The tolower() command ensures that your text is lowercase.

For example, consider the following syntax: plot(c(1,2,3), c(2,4,9), xlab = expression(phi)) This will create a small plot with the Greek symbol phi as the horizontal axis label. Note the plus or minus sign, which is achieved though the syntax %+-%. I recommend this book to everyone who uses R—both students and professional researchers alike. We have 71 such values. We will disable the x axis in order to create our own axis. 5, expression(paste(frac(gamma*omega, sigma*phi*sqrt(3*pi)), " ", e^{frac(-(3*x-2*mu)^2, 5*sigma^2)}))) text(pi,0,expression(hat(y) %+-% frac(se, alpha))) The resulting graph is as follows: By comparing your own code with that used to produce this graph, you should be able to work out how to create your own mathematical expressions.

The simplest method is to click inside the graph and then copy as a metafile or copy as a bitmap. However, you may wish to save your graphs as JPEGS, PDFs, or in other formats. off(). The list you need is labelled List of graphical devices. off() Your image is saved in the R working directory. If you have a plot on your screen, then try the following commands: x = recordPlot() x You can delete your plot but get it back again later in your session using the following command: replayPlot(x) Including mathematical expressions on your plots Mathematical expressions on graphs are made possible through a combination of two commands, expression() and paste(), and also through the substitute() command.

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