By Albert Rose (auth.)

The content material of this monograph stems from the writer's early involvement with the layout of a sequence of tv digital camera tubes: the orthicon, the picture orthicon and the vidicon. those tubes and their diversifications, have, at diversified occasions been the "eyes" of the tv method virtually from its inception in 1939. It was once typical, in the course of the process this paintings, to have a parallel curiosity within the human visible process in addition to within the silver halide photographic technique. the matter dealing with the tv method used to be just like that dealing with the human visible and the photographic platforms, specifically, to summary the utmost quantity of data out of a restricted volume oflight. The human eye and photographic movie either repreĀ­ sented complicated states of improvement and either passed, of their functionality, the early efforts on tv digicam tubes. It was once fairly real and "plain to determine" that every development and refinement of the tv digicam purely served to intensify the striking layout of the human eye. A succession of radical advances in camera-tube sensitivity discovered the attention nonetheless working at degrees of illumination too low for the tv digital camera tube. it is just lately that the tv digicam tube has ultimately matched or even a little surpassed the functionality of the human eye at low mild degrees. It used to be additionally transparent in the course of the paintings on tv digital camera tubes that the ultimate aim of any visible system-biological, chemical, or electronic-was the facility to realize or count number person photons.

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One can go back and forth between positive and negative afterimages as the stray light is either excluded or admitted. " If one looks at the end of a lighted cigarette in a dark room and moves the cigarette in a circle, the lighted end will be perceived as a finite streak of light owing to the persistence of vision or positive afterimage. Meantime, the cometlike pattern will be deep red at its head and bluish at its tail. The blue components apparently persist longer than the red components of the cigarette's light.

We emphasize this tool because it should now be readily available to experimenters skilled in the visual process. Comparable arrangements have been used both by the author and by others to make informal estimates of the quantum efficiency at low lights. The author(R-3) used a light-spot scanner (Fig. 6); Dr. J. E. 5 x 10 - 6 10 - 6 10 - 5 10- 4 10 - 3 10 - 3 Fig. 6.

Consider also the first of the series of pictures in Fig. 6. This picture was recorded from the kinescope of a 500-line television system. If we were to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of an element whose diameter is one television line width, the value, based on the density of photons, would be far less than unity. Since there are some few thousand photons in the entire picture, and a few hundred thousand television picture elements, the average number of photons per picture element is 10- 2 and the signal-to-noise ratio referred to these elements is 10- 1.

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