By W. A. Stevens B.Sc., Ph.D. (auth.)

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Viruses such as TMV and tomato mosaic may be spread too when pricking out seedlings or harvesting fruit and flowers by hand. Fortunately, however, not all viruses are mechanically transmissible. 1. Experimental mechanical transmission In order to establish the viral etiology of a disease or to identify a known virus disease, extracts of the diseased plants are rubbed on to the leaves of test plants. 1). Entry of the suspected virus into living cells of the test plants is facilitated by including an abrasive, such as carborundum powder, in the inoculum.

The term stylet-borne viruses is used by some virologists for the non-persistent virus because of the apparent contamination of stylet-tips and the passage of virus from there. The loss of efficiency of transmission following long acquisition feeds may mean that less virus is available from deeper tissues, although Nambra (1962) has shown that cucumber mosaic virus is present in mesophyll cells and available to aphids. Bradley (1952, 1961) and Sylvester (1954, 1962) have suggested that prolonged probing removes more virus from the outside of the stylets than brief probes because the salivary sheath is longer and has hardened.

1975). Pinwheels and laminated inclusions. Some viruses produce complex threedimensional proteinaceous structures (Figs. 19) which in section appear as a group of curved membranous arms diverging from a central core. This central core is tubular and the radiating laminate arms taper from one end to the other, so that in some sections the arms are short and in others long. These are called pinwheels. Some workers consider that these structures are the central portion of cylindrical inclusions and may originate in or near plasmodesmata.

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