By Thomas D. Cravens (Ed.)

The relation of language edition to reconstructed languages and to the technique of reconstruction has lengthy been overlooked. The articles within the current quantity think about this courting from a few various angles, with a couple of diverse focuses. a number of of the papers speak about facts from Germanic, both Proto-Germanic (Joseph, Schwink), or daughter languages comparable to Dutch (Goss & Howell), Afrikaans (Roberge), Newcastle English (Milroy), and a Wisconsin German dialect (Geiger & Salmons). different papers examine Italian (Cravens), Spanish (Harris-Northall), and the non-Indo-European languages or households Aramaic (Miller), and Proto-Hmong-Mien (Ratliff), and the Southeast Asian languages Phan Rang Cham and Tsat (Thurgood). In doing so that they collect a few interconnected concerns that are of present crisis in comparative and historic linguistics.

Show description

Read or Download Variation and Reconstruction PDF

Similar mathematical & statistical books

SAS 9.2 Macro Language: Reference

Explains easy methods to bring up the modularity, flexibility, and maintainability of your SAS code utilizing the SAS macro facility. offers whole information regarding macro language parts, interfaces among the SAS macro facility and different components of SAS software program, and macro processing regularly.

Advanced Engineering Mathematics with MATLAB, Second Edition

You could examine loads of arithmetic during this publication yet not anything approximately MATLAB. there's no stable perform during this e-book. a touch for the writer. attempt to make a CD-ROM with all examples on it. So all people can get conversant in MATLAB and the outside. most sensible will be to double or triple the variety of examples. (good examples in MATLAB Code) reconsider it and that i often is the first who buys the enhanced variation of this booklet or you simply need to swap the identify in :Advanced Engineering arithmetic images by way of MATLAB.

Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows Versions 8 - 10: A Beginner's Guide

A brand new variation of this best-selling introductory booklet to hide the newest SPSS models eight. zero - 10. zero This publication is designed to educate rookies the right way to use SPSS for home windows, the main established computing device package deal for analysing quantitative information. Written in a transparent, readable and non-technical type the writer explains the fundamentals of SPSS together with the enter of information, info manipulation, descriptive analyses and inferential concepts, together with; - growing utilizing and merging information documents - growing and printing graphs and charts - parametric exams together with t-tests, ANOVA, GLM - correlation, regression and issue research - non parametric exams and chi sq. reliability - acquiring neat print outs and tables - encompasses a CD-Rom containing instance info records, syntax documents, output records and Excel spreadsheets.

SPSS 16.0 Brief Guide

The SPSS sixteen. zero short consultant offers a suite of tutorials to acquaint you with the elements of the SPSS procedure. subject matters contain examining information, utilizing the knowledge Editor, reading precis facts for person variables, operating with output, growing and enhancing charts, operating with syntax, enhancing information values, sorting and choosing facts, and appearing extra statistical methods.

Additional resources for Variation and Reconstruction

Sample text

One might object that the Observer's Paradox looms large in the use of any materials gathered in this way, but we have parallel field methods across time and thus should be getting a consistent style, most likely the highest end of the speaker's register, across the decades. Another concern is sampling. We have only a few speakers from the earliest period, and even for those we often have little or no biographical information. The fieldworker in this case, though, was Lester W. J. Seifert, a native speaker of a Wisconsin German dialect.

J. "Smoky" Seifert, in belated gratitude for making this study, and we hope many similar ones, possible. We thank his family, especially his daughter Suzanne Seifert Treichel, for having the good judgment to save his recordings and bring them to the Max Kade Institute. That has triggered a wave of research as well as the founding of the now rapidly growing Max Kade Institute Sound Archive. This paper was a pilot study, one leading to the far more extensive study to be reported in Geiger (forthcoming).

3. VOT data from Standard German, American English and German dialects A notorious characteristic of most Germanic languages is the propensity to aspirate "voiceless" stops in prosodically prominent positions. Building on such phonetics, it is increasingly accepted in the literature today that the aspirated series is the laryngeally marked member of the stop series opposition, and that the distinction between the two series of stops in Germanic is in fact phonologically best captured by a feature connected to aspiration, like [spread glottis], [tense] or [fortis], rather than in terms of [voice], cf.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.87 of 5 – based on 9 votes