By Thomas D. Cravens (Ed.)
The relation of language edition to reconstructed languages and to the technique of reconstruction has lengthy been overlooked. The articles within the current quantity think about this courting from a few various angles, with a couple of diverse focuses. a number of of the papers speak about facts from Germanic, both Proto-Germanic (Joseph, Schwink), or daughter languages comparable to Dutch (Goss & Howell), Afrikaans (Roberge), Newcastle English (Milroy), and a Wisconsin German dialect (Geiger & Salmons). different papers examine Italian (Cravens), Spanish (Harris-Northall), and the non-Indo-European languages or households Aramaic (Miller), and Proto-Hmong-Mien (Ratliff), and the Southeast Asian languages Phan Rang Cham and Tsat (Thurgood). In doing so that they collect a few interconnected concerns that are of present crisis in comparative and historic linguistics.
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Additional resources for Variation and Reconstruction
One might object that the Observer's Paradox looms large in the use of any materials gathered in this way, but we have parallel field methods across time and thus should be getting a consistent style, most likely the highest end of the speaker's register, across the decades. Another concern is sampling. We have only a few speakers from the earliest period, and even for those we often have little or no biographical information. The fieldworker in this case, though, was Lester W. J. Seifert, a native speaker of a Wisconsin German dialect.
J. "Smoky" Seifert, in belated gratitude for making this study, and we hope many similar ones, possible. We thank his family, especially his daughter Suzanne Seifert Treichel, for having the good judgment to save his recordings and bring them to the Max Kade Institute. That has triggered a wave of research as well as the founding of the now rapidly growing Max Kade Institute Sound Archive. This paper was a pilot study, one leading to the far more extensive study to be reported in Geiger (forthcoming).
3. VOT data from Standard German, American English and German dialects A notorious characteristic of most Germanic languages is the propensity to aspirate "voiceless" stops in prosodically prominent positions. Building on such phonetics, it is increasingly accepted in the literature today that the aspirated series is the laryngeally marked member of the stop series opposition, and that the distinction between the two series of stops in Germanic is in fact phonologically best captured by a feature connected to aspiration, like [spread glottis], [tense] or [fortis], rather than in terms of [voice], cf.