By A. J. Peel

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Fraxinus americana (Zimmermann, 1957a), could be explained on the protected derivative hypothesis. These non-reducing sugars have one or more molecules of D-galactose bound to a sucrose residue. Species which have evolved the use of these oligosaccharides have an additional metabolic constraint, for an a-galactopyranosidase would be necessary for complete hydrolysis. Certainly, Arnold's hypothesis is supported by the evidence that the reactive reducing sugars are very rarely found to be mobile.

The concentration of amino acids and amides is not constant throughout the year; seasonal changes occur which have been measured by Mittler in stylet exudate from willow. 13 % at leaf senescence. Ziegler (1956) also found a considerable increase in the nitrogenous compounds in exudates from trees during leaf senescence. 1). 1 mg/ml in Robinia to 1 mg/ml in Quercus. This worker considered these to be non-mobile substances, torn out of the sieve tubes during the tapping process. Concentration of protein in cucurbit exudate is much higher than in tree species (Crafts, 1951).

In theory, it is very easy to determine mobilities using labelled c o m p o u n d s ; all that has to be done is to apply the radioactive compound to one end of the system, and then after a period of time find out whether activity has moved away from the point of application. In practice, the situation is not so simple, for measurements of radioactivity along the transport pathway have to be combined with analytical techniques to ensure that the label is not moving in a compound other than that which was applied.

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