By Rosa León, Aurora Galván Cejudo, Emilio Fernández

Microalgae were principally cultured and commercialized as nutrition and feed ingredients, and their strength as resource of high-added worth compounds is widely known. yet, unlike the massive variety of genetically transformed micro organism, yeast or even greater crops, just a couple of species of microalgae were genetically reworked with potency. preliminary problems within the expression of overseas genes in microalgae were steadily conquer, and robust molecular instruments for his or her genetic engineering are actually to be had. a substantial selection of promoters and selectable marker genes and progressively more genomic or cDNA sequences became to be had in recent times. extra paintings is required to rework new species of microalgae, especially those who have advertisement worth, in order that it might be attainable to extend the productiveness of conventional compounds or synthesize novel ones. Silencing transgenes continues to be as an enormous challenge for solid expression of international genes. This challenge isn't really precise to microalgae because it has additionally been saw in vegetation, animals and fungi. a greater realizing of the mechanisms that keep an eye on the legislation of gene expression in eukaryotes is hence wanted.

In this publication a gaggle of remarkable researchers engaged on diverse parts of microalgae biotechnology supply an international imaginative and prescient of the genetic manipulation of microalgae and their applications.

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Cyanophycin synthase was purified from Anabaena variabilis ATCC29413, and the corresponding gene identified in Synechocystis 6803^^ and Synechocystis sp. coli allows cyanophycin synthesis, indicating that it is the only gene required for cyanophycin production. Cyanophycin was thought to be produced only in cyanobacteria, but recently cyanophycin synthase genes have been found in other bacteria. The cyanophycin synthase from the termophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus s^. strain MAI 9 is of biotechnological interest because of its thermoestability and its relaxed substrate specificity, which allows the synthesis of polymers with different composition.

Because they evolved by secondary endocytobiosis—a process of uptake of a eukaryotic alga into another eukaryotic cell—they have a rather unusual cell biology and genetic constitution. Diatoms are also of biotechnological interest since they produce highly unsaturated fatty acids. In addition they are able to form delicately ornate cell walls made of amorphous silica. Understanding and modifying the processes of biomineralization in diatoms might result in new nanotechnological processes. Therefore recent advances in molecular genomics and the development of genetic tools for diatoms might pave the way for biotechnological modification and utilization of diatoms.

NblA protein is essential for phycobilisome degradation, and its expression is up-regulated under nitrate deprivation. '^^ A similar approach was used in which the luxAB gene was fused to the glnA (glutamine synthetase) promoter and the construction was introduced in a neutral site in the genome o£ Synechococcus sp. PCC 79427^ The ginA promoter is responsive to the available nitrogen in the medium. It was shown that the bioluminescence is inversely proportional to the N concentration in the range 1 |J,M to 1 mM for ammonium, nitrate or nitrite and 10- to 50- fold higher for the organic N compounds glutamine and urea.

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