By Robin Hooper

Tokelau includes 3 atolls, Atafu, Nukunono and Fakaofo, positioned 750 miles northwest of Samoa. Tokelauan belongs to the Polynesian sub-group of Austronesian. it truly is spoken by means of approximately nearly 5000 humans, of whom approximately 1600 reside within the atolls, approximately 3000 in New Zealand, and a number of other hundred in other places within the Pacific zone. The phonology and morphology are usual of Polynesian languages. the most morphological tactics are reduplication, compounding and derivation. quantity, annoying and point are indicated by way of debris, and there's little within the approach of inflectional morphology. The pronoun method is complicated, and an inclusive-exclusive contrast is made in twin and plural pronouns. forms if ownership marking encode a semantic contrast betweeen (loosely) inalienable and alienable ownership. In so much stories of Polynesian languages, the smallest handy unit of research is taken to be the word, and this conference is right here. Sections at the constitution of the noun word and the verb word are through an outline of clause constitution. All clauses include a predicate, of which there are a number of differing types: verbal, locative, existential, possessive, and nominal. Noun word family within the clause are indicated via prepositions, and verbal clauses have the ergative case-marking average of Western Polynesian languages. Nominalisation, complementation, and types of clause mixture are in short defined. even though Tokelauan is typologically verb preliminary, noun word preliminary clauses are universal because of pragmatic and discourse components resembling topicalization and focussing. Robin Hooper is Lecturer in English Linguistics on the college of Auckland, New Zealand. The author's paintings on Tokelauan is predicated on years' fieldwork in Fakaofo within the Seventies and carrying on with study between Tokelauan and comparative Polynesian or Oceanic syntax, and suggestions within the creation of a Tokelauan dictionary.

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The growth of the third-party distribution service industry was also of major significance, with these companies spearheading developments in information and equipment technology. The concept of and need for integrated logistics systems were recognized by forward-looking companies that participated in distribution activities. Late 1980s and early 1990s In the late 1980s and early 1990s, and linked very much to advances in information technology, organizations began to broaden their perspectives in terms of the functions that could be integrated.

Here, the textbooks provide some fascinating reading. 1 A logistics configuration showing the key components of logistics and the importance of physical flows and information flows Logistics is the Art and Science of Determining Requirements; Acquiring them; Distributing them and finally, Maintaining them in an operational ready condition for their entire life. (Stone, 1968) … the management of all activities which facilitate movement and the co-ordination of supply and demand in the creation of time and place utility.

In addition, various institutes, the Cranfield Centre for Logistics and Transportation and others, offer one- to five-day short courses on various distribution, logistics and supply-chain-related topics. SUMMARY In this initial chapter, a number of subjects have been introduced. These will be expanded in subsequent chapters of the book. The rather confusing number of associated names and different definitions were indicated and a few of the very many definitions were considered. No ‘true’ or definitive definition was offered, because logistics and distribution can and do differ dramatically from one industry, company or product to another.

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