By Kasia M. Jaszczolt, Louis de Saussure
This booklet considers linguistic and psychological representations of time. popular linguists and philosophers from around the world research and record on fresh paintings at the illustration of temporal reference; the interplay of the temporal info from annoying, element, modality, temporal adverbials, and context; and the illustration of the temporal kin among occasions and states, in addition to among proof, propositions, sentences, and utterances. They hyperlink this to present examine at the cognitive processing of temporal reference, linguistic and philosophical semantics, psychology, and anthropology. The ebook is split into 3 components: Time, demanding, and Temporal Reference in Discourse; Time and Modality; and Cognition and Metaphysics of Time. it's going to curiosity students and complex scholars of time and temporal reference in linguistics, philosophy, anthropology, psychology, and cognitive technological know-how.
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Additional resources for Time: Language, Cognition & Reality
Enjoying a thing, for instance, presupposes having interacted in some way with the thing, and that interaction is an event. The verb enjoy, however, doesn’t specify what that event is. The event could be just looking at the object as in enjoy the garden or perhaps some other activity. Similarly, one can’t finish an object unless one is involved in some activity with that object, whether it be creating it or engaging in some other activity towards it. That is why such transformations are lexically based; it is the lexical semantics of the words that licenses the coercion and that makes the rules sound.
These include Binding (in which the type presupposition is a super type of the type of the argument and thus satisfied by subtyping), Simple Accommodation (in which the two types are compatible in that they have a meet that is consistent, and the result is to take the meet as the result of the operation), and operations that allow the readjustment of the predicational relation. These operations together with the standard lambda calculus comprise the fragment of the Type Composition Logic (TCL) that is relevant for my purposes here.
In addition, we should expect pragmatic enrichment to allow coercions, say from objects to eventualities, whenever the grammar allows for an eventuality reading in the argument. But this isn’t true. Consider (17) a. The reading of the book started at 10. b. #The book started at 10. c. John started the book. It’s perfectly straightforward to get the eventuality reading for the object of start (17c) in an out-of-the-blue context. But it’s impossible to do this when the intransitive form of start is used with the book in subject position, even though an eventuality reading for the subject of intranstive start is available, indeed mandatory, as shown by (17a).