By Jenny Williams (auth.)

Presents an important theories in Translation stories that experience emerged during the last 50 years. relatively leading edge is the inclusion of theories from open air North the United States and Europe, theoretical views on fresh technological advancements and a attention of the character of conception within the field.

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In an environment where wisdom and knowledge were regarded as universal and common property, and intercultural exchange was the norm, translation meant ‘tapping into a collective pool of shared, God-given truths’ (2009: 82). Shamma argues that concepts of equivalence and faithfulness as well as of difference have their origins in ideas of individual authorship and the nation state which developed in nineteenth-century Europe and goes on to claim that such concepts are irrelevant to understanding translation not only in the classical period of Islam but throughout the premodern world.

A central task of translation theory is that of defining the nature and conditions of translation equivalence’ (1965: 21). Catford identifies two types of translation equivalence. The first is equivalence established on the basis of a comparison of SL and TL texts. He takes the view that a study of the first type of equivalence can lead to generalizations and, eventually, rules whereby a ‘translation rule is thus an extrapolation of the probability values of textual translation equivalents’ (1965: 31).

Even when the Buddhist texts arrived in China in written form, such manuscripts were often incomplete, abridged and, in some cases, already translations themselves (Cheung, 2006b: 12). Clearly, the relationship between the Chinese Buddhist texts and their antecedents, both oral and written, cannot be conceptualized in terms of the ideas of equivalence outlined in the first section of this chapter. Merrill has argued that the linear notion of one ST leading to one TT is a particularly Western concept that has its roots in biblical scholarship, and that it does not necessarily apply, for example, to the products of translation in the multilingual Indian context, which is characterized by pluralism and cyclical conceptions of being and time (2009).

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