By Michael Hackleman

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With some approximations, the presented models of luminance distribution may also be used for modeling radiance sky distribution although special radiance distribution models may also be found in the literature. Sky luminance models generate continuous sky luminance patterns. For more than 100 years, researchers all over the world have been trying to describe and model sky luminance distribution. The first measurements were performed by Schramm [SCH 01] in 1901, by Kaehler [KAE 08] in 1908, and by Kimball and Hand [KIM 21] in 1921.

The ground reflected component Gr may also be a cause of errors, though of lesser importance. The simplest Rd model considers diffuse irradiance to be isotropic distributed in the sky [LIU 60], while the more realistic models consider diffuse irradiation to be anisotropic [PER 87]. 3. Angles describing the position of the Sun: θ z – zenith angle; h – elevation angle; μ S – azimuth angle. Angles describing the position of a surface: β – slope angle; μ – surface azimuth angle. 4] t1 usually measured in Jm−2 or Whm−2.

Different category of pyrheliometers and pyranometers (after [WMO 08]) Self-calibrating absolute pyrheliometers [RED 96] are used as the primary standard, the other radiometers being calibrated against an absolute instrument. The uncertainty of the measured value depends on factors, such as: – resolution: the smallest change in the radiation quantity that can be detected by the instrument; – non-linearity of response: the change in sensitivity associated with the incident irradiance level; – deviation of the directional response: the cosine response and azimuth response; – time constant of the instrument: the time taken to reach 95% of the final value; – changes in sensitivity due to changes in weather variables: variables such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind; – long-term drifts of sensitivity: defined as the ratio of electrical output signal to the irradiance applied.

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