By Levi Ben Gershom, Seymour Feldman

The Wars of the Lord is the key treatise of Levi ben Gershom of Provence (1288-1344), probably the most artistic and bold minds of the medieval international. The paintings, an exceptional fulfillment of Jewish notion, is dedicated to an indication that the Torah, accurately understood, is the same to actual philosophy.

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Extra resources for The Wars of The Lord: Volume Three

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For when the moon is at an [angular] distance of 90° from the sun, the eastern part of the moon emits light; when it is at an [angle] of 180° from the sun, all of the moon emits light; and when it is at 270° distance from the sun, the western part of the moon emits light. In this manner, the four phases of the moon are generated by virtue of its distance from and proximity to the sun. For this reason, the moon has no light of its own, but it receives its light from the sun. , the first mean conjunction [ha-molad] is in the constellation of Aries, the second in Taurus, and so it continues (or nearly so) every month.

Neugebauer, 68ff. 13 Nezorut, "retrogradation," or the retrograde motions of the planets. This is the opposite motion of a planet from east to west, contrary to their direct motion eastward. Between the direct and retrograde motions, a planet will appear to be at rest twice for short periods of time. These are its stations ('amidot). ( Ptolemy, XII. Pedersen, 329-49). ) In this particular context, this measurement refers to the angular distance north or south of a planet from the ecliptic, or its latitude.

Second, because the rays of the sun are reflected back [ "replicantur"] and make the air more genially warm with reflected heat [ "duplicato calore]. The two Latin words "replicantur" and "duplicato" seem to correspond to Gersonides' term kafal ( Seneca, Naturales Quaestiones, 11:10, trans. T. Corcoran, Loeb edition). , the heat is "multiplied". This discussion is also found in Averroes' Middle Commentary on On the Heavens, (126H). ( N. C. Crombie, Grosseteste and Experimental Science, ( Oxford, 1953), 95-96, 116-18, 19697, 218-19.

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