By John Bowker

The Targums are interpretative translations of the Hebrew textual content of the Bible which originated in Synagogue educating, the place an interpretation of the Hebrew textual content needed to be given orally for the advantage of non-Hebrew conversing congregations. Over the centuries, a free 'Targum culture' started to shape and the written Aramaic Targums can top be understood as crystallisations of the Targum culture at various issues of time. within the first a part of this publication Professor Bowker examines the emergence and improvement of Jewish exegesis and the significance of the Targums. taking into account that Jewish and rabbinic fabric is being more and more utilized to difficulties of Christian origins, he offers a accomplished creation to the topic (referring to the texts and translations so much available) with emphasis on fresh paintings and discoveries. the second one a part of the publication provides real fabric in translation, displaying how Jewish exegesis arrived at its interpretations of Scripture.

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Since the text of Neofiti I has been published, with an English translation, passages from Neofiti have not been translated in this book: it is now possible to make an extensive comparison with Pseudo-Jonathan, and the space saved has been able to be devoted to fuller notes than would otherwise have been possible. T. problems, see the bibliography under R. le Deaut, M. McNamara and P. Nickels, and for a criticism see the bibliography under G. J. Cowling. b. THE FRAGMENTARY TARGUM. Five texts have preserved fragments of the Palestinian Targum, but they represent two different recensions (or developments) of it: (i) The four texts V, B, N, L 2 have preserved between them just under a thousand verses of the Pentateuch.

Jewish pre-Rabbinic literature is too well known to require a general introduction here, but for the sake of completeness a list of authors and sources quoted in this book will be given, together with brief information about them. Philo The date of Philo's birth is uncertain. J. D. 39-40, since that was the date of the embassy to Gaius. His exegesis of scripture was predominantly allegorical. He was evidently concerned to commend Judaism to the Hellenistic world (of which, living in Alexandria, he was a part) through the media of Hellenism.

24, and of the six Orders of the Mishnah in Pseudo-Jonathan on Exod. xxvi. 9. 2 It must also be remembered that Pseudo-Jonathan is not necessarily a static work, but that it may have been changed during the course of its transmission to keep it 'up to date*. 26 Downloaded from University Publishing Online. 251 on Fri Jan 27 11:57:56 GMT 2012. 1 There is no doubt that what is needed is the publication of the known versions of the Palestinian Targum-tradition in synoptic form, but the cost might be prohibitive—though if it were done it might well throw important light on the methodology of the synoptic study of the Gospels.

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