By M. Feingold

"One can't speak about arithmetic within the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with no seeing a Jesuit at each corner," George Sarton saw in 1940. * Sarton, in fact, was once no longer the 1st to acknowledge the disproportionate illustration of participants of the Society of Jesus within the clinical company of the early sleek interval. even though, not like many historians who belittled the discernible numerical energy of the Jesuits for the reason that they lacked originality and have been mostly adverse to new principles, Sarton correlated numerical energy with importance. therefore his plea for amassing the papers of that industrious historian of Jesuit technology, Henri Bosmans, was once particularly clean. but Sarton's allure went unheeded, and never in basic terms with recognize to Bosmans' papers. The belief of the Jesuits as plodding pedagogues and obscurantists remained as ingrained as ever, nearly sanctioning the forget in their actions. Such overlook intended that the precise nature of the Jesuit contribution to the medical Revolution remained sketchy at top; just recently - as a result of a long-overdue exam of the Order's documents and of released texts - have new contours started to emerge. awesome during this reassessment is a extra nuanced appreciation of the Jesuits' interplay with "modernity" and a miles better popularity of the Jesuit contribution to the 2 poles of contemporary technological know-how: the mathematization of typical philosophy and experimental science.

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Et quidem praeter Astronomiam sive Astrologiam, subque etiam Cosmographiam lice bit comprehendere, et Musicam sive Canonicam, quae scilicet sci[enti]ae inter alias rerum sensibilium cognitiones facile principem tenent locum, et quarum illa, nempe Astronomia, de mundanis motibus, de caelestium corporum, magnitudinibus, figuris illuminationibus, a terraque distantijs et de alijs huiusmodi rebus disputat, dividiturque in Gnomonicam Metheoroscopicam, et dioptricum: Haec vero, nempe Musica apparentes concentuum 141 rationes considerat, et pene non menti aures praeponit, ut bene advertit Plato: Praeter has inquam aliae quatuor minus principales solent assignari, v[i]d[elice]t Perspectiva; Geodesia, praeter ig[itu]r Arithmeticam et Geometricam quae solae sunt propriae disciplinas mathematicae, praeterque Astronomiam et Musicam, quae inter alias rerum sensibilium cognitiones facile pricipum142 locum tenent, alias quatuor [word deleted] solent assignari, videlicet Perspectiva Geodaesia [69v] Supputatrix et Mechanica, quae tamen singulae in plures etiam subdividuntur partes, ut ex sequentibus constabit.

Christoph Grienberger), Ad ostentationem Algebrae. ), APUG Fondo Curia 2052 VIII 60r-65r. XIII* Anon. ), Oration initiating studies in 1612, sent to Galileo, published in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale, ed. Antonio Favaro, Vol. XI, p. 274. XIV* Francisco de Ghevara [Christoph Grienberger), Speculum Ustorium verae ac Primigeniae suae formae restitutum. Romae: Apud Batholomaeum Zannettum; 1613. XV* Anon. [Christoph Grienberger), De ijs quae vehuntur in aquis, Recited by Giovanni Bardi in the Collegio Romano, 23 June 1614, APUG Fondo Curia 2052 VIII 47r-54r, published as Eorum quae vehuntur in aquis experimenta a Ioanne Bardio Florentino.

CHRISTOPH GRIENBERGER) [Optical problem: ... fieri posse ... in aliqua mensa lumine, et e directo luminis ultra quoddam foramen vel rimam homine; Homo quidem ille, a lumine illo illuminetur, ipse tamen licet quae ad utramque sunt partem luminis videat, lumen tamen ipsum videre non possit, recited in the Collegio Romano, 23 December 1591 148] APUG Fondo Curia 2052 VIII, ff. llr-16r, 22v-23r Grienberger autograph The speaker, most probably a student, describes a simple optical experiment on binocular vision (see Figure 11) which is a variation on the "floatingsausage" experiment, occuring when one points one's index fingers towards each other close to the eyes.

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