By M. Athar Ali

This paperback variation of a vintage not just exams a couple of well known hypotheses in regards to the Mughal Empire in the course of the reign of Aurangzeb by way of interpreting the composition and the position of the Aristocracy lower than his rule, but in addition assesses afresh the fabric and questions which were thrown up considering the fact that 1966.

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Ts evtdent from the h1StOrtcal examples he c1tes m that essay The greamess of anctent Greece Dar asserted lay m the fuct that t had allowed pub1 r: debate :md free diScusston on unportant 40 FRACTIJRED MODERNITY lSsues By encouragmg modern learnmg and allov. t1Ve publtc suffered at the hands of the1r European rulers Queen Vtctona s proclamation guaranteemg equal nghts to her Indtan subJects was m voked to demand greater equahty n deal ngs berwecn Europeans and Emergence of a. I1Stance was always a matter whtch provoked comment as d1d the pubhcatton of the annual reports of the admtmstratLon Accompanymg the emergence of the pubhc.

S B1Shan Naram Dar satd that the tunes when even the stones m Kashmm Muhalla [the Kashmm netghborhood1 could boast they had an uncle who ts Deputy CommtSstoner had passed Htghhghtmg the fact that the Pandtts no longer had monopoly over government post ttons Dar satd tt was t1me for them to take thetr education sertously tf they wanted to compete wtth other commumues for scarce opportum ttes (Sender 1989 135) Even the Deputy Commtss10ner-uncles were commg to the same reahzatton Ph1lanthrop1c actlvtttes parucularly among servtce communmes changed stgmficantly m the latter part of the nmeteenth century Whereas earher feasts at Kashmm buzurg s houses or marnage festtvlttes mvolved huge expenses Wlth uwttatton..

Ed thts tradlOon than the Kayasthas and Kashrrun Pandtts of north lnd1a Servmg under Mushm rulers not only d1d many of them become pro:6. s B1Shan Naram Dar satd that the tunes when even the stones m Kashmm Muhalla [the Kashmm netghborhood1 could boast they had an uncle who ts Deputy CommtSstoner had passed Htghhghtmg the fact that the Pandtts no longer had monopoly over government post ttons Dar satd tt was t1me for them to take thetr education sertously tf they wanted to compete wtth other commumues for scarce opportum ttes (Sender 1989 135) Even the Deputy Commtss10ner-uncles were commg to the same reahzatton Ph1lanthrop1c actlvtttes parucularly among servtce communmes changed stgmficantly m the latter part of the nmeteenth century Whereas earher feasts at Kashmm buzurg s houses or marnage festtvlttes mvolved huge expenses Wlth uwttatton..

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