By Elly van Gelderen

Elly van Gelderen offers examples of linguistic cycles from a couple of languages and language households, in addition to an account of the linguistic cycle when it comes to minimalist economic climate rules. A cycle contains grammaticalization from lexical to practical class through renewal. a few recognized cycles contain negatives, the place complete destructive words are reanalyzed as phrases and affixes and are then renewed by way of complete words back. Verbal contract is one other instance: complete pronouns are reanalyzed as contract markers and are renewed back. every one bankruptcy presents info on a separate cycle from a myriad of languages. Van Gelderen argues that the cross-linguistic similarities might be noticeable as economic system ideas found in the preliminary cognitive method or common Grammar. She extra claims that a number of the cycles can be utilized to categorise a language as analytic or man made, and he or she presents perception into the form of the earliest human language and the way it advanced.

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Extra info for The Linguistic Cycle: Language Change and the Language Faculty

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71) fro hwat he scal his sunne uor-saken (HC ME1) (72) All the children might have been all the children reading happily. (73) The sterres also and all the fyrmamente she maketh to retorne abacke. 87 [1490], from OED) Preposition stranding in English, as in (66) and (67), started in the thirteenth century (Denison 1993: 125–127). It is preferred under (65) and it is estimated that in speech 86 percent of prepositions are stranded while in writing only 7 percent are. This difference between spoken and written data points toward strong prescriptive pressure.

However, most languages have words that are ambiguous between lexical and grammatical status, such as prepositions and complementizers. Pronouns may be an instance of a clear change from lexical use to grammatical use. In what follows, I provide instances of words ending up doing double duty, so to speak: first as lexical words and then as both lexical and grammatical words. Josefsson and Håkansson (2000: 398) argue that Swedish “children first acquire the PP and then, directly after that the subordinate clause”: (43) first and then (44).

Baker (2008a: 39, 153) argues that T is not a probe in Japanese, which is similar to not having probing phi features; the same would hold for Korean. 32 The Linguistic Cycle indicates that something interesting is happening with modals and perfect auxiliaries. Similarly, if first (and second) person pronouns are “repeated” more than third person ones, this indicates an important difference between those persons in the language. This difference cannot be attributed to performance but must be determined by the I-language.

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