By Christopher Upward
The background of English Spelling finds the historical past of contemporary English spelling, tracing its origins and improvement from previous English as much as the current day.
- Includes a wealth of data and information on English spelling no longer to be had anyplace else
- Features a complementary web site with extra material at www.historyofenglishspelling.info
- Includes targeted insurance of the contributions from French, Latin, Greek - and the various different languages - to our present orthography
- Serves as a spouse quantity to Geoffrey Hughes's A historical past of English Words within the related series
Chapter 1 creation and assessment (pages 1–13):
Chapter 2 England and English from the Romans to the Vikings (pages 14–32):
Chapter three The previous English Roots of contemporary English Spelling (pages 33–64):
Chapter four The Decline and Revival of English within the heart English interval (pages 65–85):
Chapter five The Franco?Latin point (pages 86–172):
Chapter 6 a few Sound and Spelling advancements in center and sleek English (pages 173–193):
Chapter 7 The Greek Contribution (pages 194–227):
Chapter eight The unique enter (pages 228–292):
Chapter nine Reformers, Lexicographers and the Parting of the methods (pages 293–314):
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Additional info for The History of English Spelling
ModE - with the vowel /q/ derives from OE -: cildhad ‘childhood’. g. loath/ loth from la2. In compounds, ModE has a short value: bonﬁre not *boneﬁre, holiday not *holyday (see p. 40). The OE is preserved in tadpole (not *toadpoll ). ° • • Æ OE had short and long sound values. • The letter and its sound may occur as mutations (that is, alterations in quality caused by a following vowel) of in different forms of the same word in OE, depending on the following sound: dæL ‘day’, plural daLas ‘days’; habban ‘to have’, hæfde ‘had’.
Viewed from the perspective of Modern English, the Scandinavian word-stock has integrated almost indistinguishably into the spelling patterns of English as a whole: compare, for example, window (< Old Norse vindauga ‘wind-eye’) and widow (< Old English widewe); similarly, Scandinavian-derived cast beside Old English last, take beside make, (boat)swain beside rain. • Most Scandinavian-derived words in Modern English are simple monosyllables with unremarkable spellings representing their pronunciation in a predictable way: bait, bark (of a tree), bask, bloom, boon, brink, call, clip, crawl, crook, cut, die, dirt, down ‘feathers’, droop, ﬂat, ﬂit, fog, gait, gap, gasp, gust, hit, ill, lift, link, loan, loose, muck, odd, rid, sly, snub, sprint, stab, stack, swirl, till, trust, want, wing.
Short in OE could also lead to other vowels in ModE: , as in beran ‘to bear’, tredan ‘to tread’, and /ij/ spelt in bicJe2an ‘to bequeath’, etan ‘to eat’, mete ‘meat’, Jefan ‘to weave’. ModE /ij/ spelt : feld ‘ﬁeld’, Leldan ‘to yield’. Further variations are seen in secLan ‘to say’, JeL ‘way’. • The contrasting long/short vowels in the ModE pair break/breakfast represent a recurrent pattern, whereby an OE-derived word (in this case brecan ‘break’) appears with a short vowel in the ﬁrst element of a compound, although the ModE base form has a long vowel.