By Malka H. Shulewitz

The tale of the fashionable Jewish exodus from Arab lands, this booklet investigates the Jewish presence in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Yemen, which preceded the increase of Islam via greater than one thousand years. It indicates how, by way of 1976, this historical diaspora had almost disappeared: simply approximately 20,000 stay, usually in North Africa. of those refugees, a few 20,000 opted for the Americas and different western countiries; the vast majority of the remaining migrated to Israel the place their progeny at the present time contain forty in step with cent of the inhabitants.

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30. 43. On Sadat's relations with the Coptic community see the series of articles on the 'Coptic question' by Walid Phares in Al-Ahrar (May-June 1980); and a series of articles on 'Egypt's Copts' in Al-Maruni (March-June 1980). 44. On the Coptic opposition movement see publications of the World Coptic Association (Jersey City) and publications of the American Coptic Association, 1991. 45. See 'Heaviest cross for Egypt's Copts: March of Islam', New York Times, 27 July 1992. 46. See 'Fanatic journalist demands that Coptic Church leadership deny existence of persecution', Mideast Newswire, 16 July 1997.

Later, Arabists became predominant in journalism. For decades, senior conceptualizers and field operatives of the US State Department simply rejected the existence of non-Arab, particularly non-Muslim, ethnic groups in the Middle East. 78 Notes 1. On majority-minority relations, see Elie Kedourie, 'Ethnicity, majority and minority in the Middle East', in Milton Esman and Itamar Rabinovitch (eds), Ethnicity, Pluralism and the State of the Middle East (Ithaca, Cornell University Press), pp. 25-31.

4, Nos. ', Bulletin of the Jerusalem Institute for Western Defense, Vol. 6, No. 4, December 1993, pp. 2-8; and Graham E. Fuller, 'The fate of the Kurds', Foreign Affairs, Spring 1993, pp. 108-21. 8. See Le Nouvel Observateur, No. 1553, 11-17 August 1994, pp. 4-11; New York Times International, 1 October 1994; and Roger Kaplan, The battle for Algeria', American Spectator, October 1995, pp. 30-3. 14 Mordechai Nisan 9. For two fascinating works on the bedouin, see T. E. Lawrence, Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph, Garden City, NY, Garden City Publishers, 1935 (originally published 1926); and Michael Asher, Thesiger: A Biography, London, Penguin, 1994.

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