By David Novak

The view of themselves because the selected humans of God has been maintained through Jews from the beginnings in their historical past to the current. the writer explores the improvement of this concept in Jewish theology and legislation, and essays a latest retrieval of the classical doctrine of election. via an exam of the philosophical implications of the assumption, he argues for the correlation of election and revelation, and indicates either what the inspiration of election should still suggest for Jews this present day, and the way non-Jews can larger know it.

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For these leaders often have to coerce those living under their authority to obey the law (obedientia) because these ordinary people often do not even understand the teleology of political order, much less true ontological causality. , prop. 36, schol. tfotff. 15 TT-P, chap. 15/pp. 23-234. Cf. , 1971), 136-137. ). For Saadiah, though, this is only tentative inasmuch as he believes that there are real final causes in created nature and that they are simply awaiting discovery. , efficient) causes.

See S. Zac, Spinoza et I'interprUation de Vicriture (Paris, 1965), 208-209. See Zac, Philosophie, theologie, politique dans I'ceuvre de Spinoza, 204. See TT-P, c h a p . 18/pp. 27-279; also, L. S. , 1958), 130. For the sources of the subsequent debate over whether Spinoza was an atheist or not, see M. J. , 1987), 11-12. " 49 Now, those who are philosophically astute clearly understand the benefit of social order and tranquillity as ends in themselves. They need no further goad to uphold laws designed for the sake of these ends.

Cf. /pp. 443-444. " TT-P, chap. 17/p. 267. See also chap. 4/p. 101. 28 Spinoza and his challenge ignorance of ontological causality in the political realm is not just temporary, something that further research could eventually uncover. 14 The permanent ignorance of ontological causality is the very presupposition of a society truly in keeping with the human condition and its political contingencies. That is why political knowledge can never have mathematical certainty. 15 Spinoza seems to be saying that it would be folly to allow political decisions to wait for the mathematical demonstration appropriate to the study of nature.

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