By Ruth A. Clements, Daniel R. Schwartz

The thirteen papers comprising this quantity symbolize the culmination of the 1st Orion heart Symposium dedicated to the comparability of the lifeless Sea and early Christian texts. The authors reject the older paradigm which configured the similarities among Qumran and early Christian literature as facts of "influence" from one upon the opposite. They bring up clean methodological percentages through asking how insights from every one of those corpora light up the opposite, and via contemplating them as parallel proof for broader currents of moment Temple Judaism. themes addressed contain particular exegetical and felony comparisons; prophecy, demonology, and messianism; the advance of canon and the increase of remark; and attainable connections among the Gospel of John and the lifeless Sea Scrolls.

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47 Although all of these texts are fragmentary and none provides anything approaching a complete running commentary, they do share several distinctive characteristics that bear on our inquiry. B. excluding frg. 5, now reclassified as 4Q173a: see M. P. Horgan, “House of Stumbling Fragment [4Q173a = 4Q173 olim],” in Charlesworth, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations, Vol. 6B, 363–65 [cf. 31 n. 5]. , J. H. Charlesworth, “Commentary on Malachi A,” in Charlesworth, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations, Vol.

Further my discussion in Bockmuehl, Revelation and Mystery, 78–81. 76 He shows little interest in philology or textual criticism, perhaps precisely because of this intensely mystical approach. 77 In view of this literary critical setting, it seems significant that Philo thought he recognized a kindred and commendable hermeneutical practice in the biblical interpretation of both the Essenes and the Therapeutae. 79 Philo appears, indeed, to be familiar with a number of other Jewish exegetical techniques.

A general reference in Tob 14:4 is also to be considered here: on his deathbed Tobit mentions all that the prophets of Israel have spoken (4Q198 1 12). All these references seem to be to the prophets of earlier times, many of whom have left literary traditions. In 4Q292, a composition whose remains attest no explicit sectarian terminology, there is again reference to “all your servants the prophets” (4Q292 2 4). The second person suffix indicates that the context is a prayer addressed to God, possibly a prayer that prophetic sayings 13 A similar formula is found in 4Q292 2 4 (‫ ;)ביד כול עבדיכה הנביאים‬4Q390 2 i 5 (‫ ;)בי[ד עבדי הנביאים‬and 4Q504 1–2 iii 12–13 (‫)מושה ועבדיכה הנביאים‬.

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