By John Foreman

This publication has been written to supply an intro­ bankruptcy 2 bargains with the mechanism of listen­ duction to the basic innovations of sound ing and the subjective score of sound, includ­ and a complete insurance wherein un­ ing age-related and noise-induced listening to loss. sought after sound (noise) should be managed. Al­ evaluation of any noise challenge comprises a even though there are numerous remarkable textbooks which wisdom of the instrumentation on hand for deal essentially with the physics (or idea) of measurements, the constraints of this instru­ sound, and others which deal with noise regulate in mentation, the right methods for mak­ a strictly functional (and occasionally even empir­ ing the measurements with the instrumentation, ical) demeanour, there are few textbooks that professional­ and the equipment in which the measured info vide a bridging among the required lower than­ might be analyzed. bankruptcy three offers an up-to­ status of the basics of sound (its date assurance of those necessities, together with iteration, propagation, size) and the a bit on one of many most modern and so much valu­ software of those basics to its keep watch over. capable instruments in noise studies-sound depth This booklet offers that hyperlink. size. the aptitude of having the ability to The textual content offers noise regulate essentially at degree sound depth compared with con­ the introductory level.

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5 .......... r...... ....... t ~~ ...... i'--- ..... 5 r.... ~ ~ ~ ....... " '/ ....... ...... 0, r.... 7, I"" ~ r-.... 5 ......... i'--- r.... 'I ~ ~ ...... 3 .......... ~ r.... I r-.... 2 .......... I .......... :---...... 1 10 I Loudness Index ....... .......... 50 I II " .... :: 0~ ...... I I 50 100 200 500 lK .......... , I I 10 K Frequency (Hz) Fig. 7. Equal loudness index contours. sound level LD which was judged equally loud. The abscissa is simply the pulse duration. , Li - LD = O.

A correction at each frequency must be applied to audiograms to take account of this agedependent characteristic, in order to be able to arrive at the amount of hearing damage which can fairly be attributed to the effects of noise exposure. " 20 "0 0. " 0 '" 30 0. '0" ... ;. 40 ~ :! " ~ "0 ~ ... c ~ 30 ;. .. ;. a '" 20 30 40 50 Age, yr 60 70 80 80 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age, yr Fig. 10. Average shifts with age (in persons with "normal" hearing) of threshold of hearing for pure tones. 7. 1. Steady Noise If the ear is exposed to a high level of noise for a short period, a test of the sensitivity of that ear taken immediately aftelWard reveals a small hearing loss known as a temporary threshold shift.

This constitutes the simplest form of noise-measuring instrumentation. However, the signal output from the sound-level meter may be fed into a magnetic tape recorder and stored for detailed analysis at a later time or the signal may be fed directly from the sound level meter into one of a variety of signal analyzers and data readout devices, including digitizing of data for computer processing. Microphones and vibration pickups (transducers) are the most crucial part of any measuring system and should receive the most care and attention.

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