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1. ) • Commercially available – over 12 billion kWh of operational experience; operating temperature potential up to 500°C (400°C commercially proven) • Good mid-term prospects for high conversion efficiencies, operating temperature potential beyond 1,000°C (565°C proven at 10 MW scale) • Very high conversion efficiencies – peak solar to net electric conversion over 30% • Storage at high temperatures • Hybrid operation possible • Hybrid operation possible • Operational experience of first demonstration projects • Projected annual performance values, investment and operating costs still need to be proven in commercial operation • Reliability needs to be improved • Commercially proven annual net plant efficiency of 14% (solar radiation to net electric output) • Commercially proven investment and operating costs Advantages • Modularity • Modularity • Best land-use factor of all solar technologies • Lowest materials demand • Hybrid concept proven • Storage capability • The use of oil-based heat transfer media restricts operating temperatures today to 400°C, resulting in only moderate steam qualities Disadvantages • Projected cost goals of mass production still need to be achieved PARABOLIC TROUGH SYSTEMS Technology developments Parabolic trough systems represent the most mature solar thermal power technology, with 354 MWe connected to the Southern California grid since the 1980s and over 2 million square metres of parabolic trough collectors operating with a long term availability of over 99%.

5 Trough, Oil 1981 8 European countries & USA 1 Tower, Water-Steam 1981 Japan California, USA 10 Tower, Water-Steam 1982 US Dept. 5 Tower, Molten Salt 1982 France CESA-1 Almeria, Spain Tower, Water-Steam 1983 Spain MSEE Albuquerque, USA Tower, Molten Salt 1984 US Dept. 025 Dish, Hydrogen 1984 Advanco Corp. 75 14 5 PART TWO SOLAR THERMAL POWER – TECHNOLOGY, COSTS AND BENEFITS PART TWO: SOLAR THERMAL POWER – TECHNOLOGY, COSTS AND BENEFITS TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW Solar thermal power plants, often also called Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants, produce electricity in much the same way as conventional power stations.

Natural gas is the least dirty of the fossil fuels because it produces roughly half the quantity of carbon dioxide and less of other polluting gases. Nuclear power produces very little CO2, but has other major pollution problems associated with its operation and waste products. The consequences of climate change already apparent today include: • The proportion of CO2 in the atmosphere has risen by 30% since industrialisation began. • The number of natural disasters has trebled since the 1960s. 5.

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