By Olindo Isabella, Klaus Jäger, Arno Smets, René van Swaaij, Miro Zeman
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Additional info for Solar Energy: The Physics and Engineering of Photovoltaic Conversion, Technologies and Systems
The generation of a potential difference at the junction of two different materials in response to electromagnetic radiation. The photovoltaic effect is closely related to the photoelectric effect, where electrons are emitted from a material that has absorbed light with a frequency above a material-dependent threshold frequency. For his explanation of the photoelectric effect Einstein received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 . The photovoltaic effect can be divided into three basic processes: 1.
Irradiance refers to radiation that is received by the surface. For radiation emitted by the surface, we instead speak of radiant emittance, Me, Meν, and Meλ. The total photon flow Ψph is related to the spectral photon flow via The physical dimensions of the (spectral) photon flow are [Ψph] = s−1, [Ψph, ν] = 1, [Ψph, λ] = s−1m−1. The physical dimensions are [Φph] = s−1m−2, [Φph, ν] = m−2, [Φph, λ] = s−1m−2m−1. 12), we find and analogously for Ieν and Φph, ν. 3 Blackbody radiation If we take a piece of metal, for example, and start heating it up, it will start to glow, first in a reddish colour, then getting more and more yellowish as we increase the temperature even further.
3Or biomass authors note. 2 Status and prospects of PV technology In this chapter we give a brief overview on the current status of PV technology and discuss its prospects. 1 shows the worldwide cumulative installed PV power, which is exponentially increasing in time. The vertical axis represents the cumulative installed power capacity expressed in GWp. 5. For China we observe a very strong increase in installed PV power since 2010. Of all the installed PV power at the end of 2013, almost one third was installed in 2013 alone!