By H. Kopetz (auth.)
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Extra resources for Software Reliability
Real world problems are usually not weIl defined, but ill structured. ' (Sirnon, 1971, p. ) On the other hand, changes to the functional specification can have the following effects on the system development (Gibson and Railing, 1971) destruction of the system structure and hence the quality increased personnel costs additional errors increased effort in system verification deterioration in the motivation of personnel. If no changes are made because of the above considerations, it may become necessary for an extensive rewrite of the system after it becomes operational.
For each phase of the system analysis a comprehensive set of forms is maintained, which are designed to help the analyst in a systematic and complete compilation of all requirements. A similar method is offered by the ARDI-method (Analysis, Requirement Determination, Design and Development, Implementation and Evaluation), introduced by Hartmann et al. in 1968. Characteristic for both methods is the mainly verbal description of the system. Herein, perhaps, lies the reason for the limited acceptance of these otherwise excellent systems analysis methods.
Also important to the understanding of a hierarchy is its span. This means the number of subsystems which appear on the same level of the hierarchy. If the span is narrow then the hierarchy is said to be steep; otherwise it is said to be flat. The span of a hierarchy is determined by the ability of its components to support strong interaction. It is an important factor in understanding the relationships on any given level. Flat hierarchies are more difficult to analyse than steep ones. These general remarks concerning the understanding of hierarchical systems mayaiso be used in the simplification of modular software systems.