By Peter Nick (auth.), Stefano Mancuso, Franti¿ek Balu¿ka (eds.)

This publication addresses diversified points of signaling in any respect degrees of plant association, ranging from unmarried molecules; via vesicle recycling and organelles, dynamic actin cytoskeletons, and plant organs bending according to sensory stimuli prompted by means of abiotic cues equivalent to gravity and lightweight; as much as the complete organism as relating to its circadian clock or pathogen safeguard. Emphasis is put on the integrative elements of signaling, which foster our realizing of sensory and communicative crops in all their complexity.

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Integr Comp Biol 43:247–253 Kögl F, Hagen-Smit J, Erxleben H (1934) Über ein neues Auxin (“Hetero-Auxin”) aus Harn. Hoppe-Seylers Z Physiol Chem 228:104–112 Kutschera U, Bergfeld R, Schopfer P (1987) Cooperation of epidermal and inner tissues in auxinmediated growth of maize coleoptiles. Planta 170:168–180 Lintilhac PM (1999) Towards a theory of cellularity − speculations on the nature of the living cell. , Nick, P. Actin-related protein 3 labels actin-cucleating sites in tobacco BY-2-cells. J.

SOS2 also works to activate H+-ATPases under salt stress and helps in reinstating ionic homeostasis. For details, refer to the text and Mahajan et al. (2008) proton-pumping pyrophosphatase to sequester Ca2+ in the vacuole (Tuteja and Mahajan 2007). In many plant cells the vacuole occupies more than 50% of the cell volume, and it is evident that trans tonoplast Ca2+ transport makes a very significant contribution to the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. 4 Ca2+ Signature It is now clear that transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt is a universal response to stress and also critical for the production of a physiological response.

In response to abscisic acid (ABA) an increase (37–80%) in cytosolic Ca2+ in the opened stomatal guard cells has been observed. Light (phototropism) and gravity (geotropism) in maize coleoptiles have been shown to be responsible for increasing the cytosolic Ca2+. Gibberellic acid increases the cytosolic Ca2+ of 32 N. Tuteja Fig. 1 Generic pathway for calcium signaling. The extracellular stress signal is first perceived by the membrane receptors and then activates a large and complex signaling cascade intracellularly including the generation of secondary signal molecules.

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