By Levin B. Y.

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Gabriel used 123D Catch to 3D scan a tortoise specimen and printed the models at the UF Marston Science Library. He used the 3D model to create a cast, then duplicated the model using Plasticine since he wished to capture bite marks and the plastic was too hard for animals to bite. Gabriel then painted and scented the models, placing them in artificial burrows at the Archbold Biological Station in Highlands County, Florida. He successfully recorded predator occurrence and attack rates at each point using motion-sensor cameras.

18 ▲ C H A P T E R 2 If an FFF-type 3D printer is used, be prepared to manage the filament debris that is inevitable after each model print. Most printers lay down a test line of plastic to clear the model and this, along with model supports and rafting, will accumulate near the printers. If the filament is PLA, these scraps may be recycled, but other materials will need to be placed in the trash. Filament bits will adhere to carpet, so smooth flooring or a carpet covering may be preferable. One 3D printer’s mess is fairly easy to contain, similar to an area where you may supply a pencil sharpener, hole punch, and stapler.

Comparison of FFF Filament Material Properties NAME EXTRUSION TEMPERATURE POSITIVES NEGATIVES NOTES Same plastic as LEGOs ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) 210–250°C Strong, flexible, smooth surface, withstands higher temperatures, easy to sand and paint Strong odor, warps easily, requires heated build plate, may require fume hood, not biodegradable PLA (Polylactic Acid) 190–240°C Low warping, doesn’t require heated build plate, recyclable, sweet odor Less flexible, can be brittle, softens at 60°C HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene) 230–265°C Dissolves only in limonene-D so good for support material Preferred material for LulzBot 3D printers PET(E/T/G) (Polyethylene Terephthalate) 210–250°C Recyclable, strong, transparent surface Same plastic as soda bottles, preferred filament for Cube’s Ekocycle PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) 190–210°C Dissolvable in water Filament susceptible to humidity Nylon 245°C Absorbs color well (see Horne, 2013) Filament susceptible to humidity NinjaFlex 210–240°C Prints are flexible Expensive, adhesion to build plate can be difficult Lay Brick and Lay Wood Varies by intended texture effect Achieve look of brick or wood using FFF printer Particles can damage extruder 16 ▲ C H A P T E R 2 Useful as support material Mixture of PLA and brick or pine shavings It can also result in poor print quality, with some sections too thin and some too thick” (MakerBot Industries LLC, 2015).

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