By Yongxiang Lu

This normal document, subsidized through the chinese language Academy of Sciences, provides a breathtaking state of affairs for China's modernization force to 2050. It analyzes the evolution and legislation governing the advance of technology and know-how, describes the decisive impression of technology and know-how at the modernization approach, predicts that the area is at the eve of an drawing close S&T revolution, and demands China to be absolutely ready for this new around of S&T development. in line with its distinct learn of the calls for on S&T innovation in China's modernization, it attracts a framework for 8 easy and strategic platforms of socio-economic improvement with the aid of technology and expertise, works out China's S&T roadmaps for the proper 8 uncomplicated and strategic structures in accordance with China's truth, extra info S&T projects of strategic value to China's modernization, and gives S&T decision-makers with accomplished consultations for the advance of S&T innovation in step with China's truth. Supported through illustrations and tables of information, the overall document presents researchers, govt officers or even marketers with information referring to study instructions, the making plans technique, and funding. It additionally serves as a preamble for the eighteen exact field-specific experiences of the committees assigned to craft roadmaps for every sphere of improvement. based in 1949, the chinese language Academy of Sciences is the nation's optimum educational establishment within the ordinary sciences. Its significant tasks are to behavior learn in uncomplicated and technological sciences, to adopt national built-in surveys on average assets and ecological surroundings, to supply the rustic with medical info and consultations for government's decision-makings, to adopt government-assigned initiatives with reference to key S&T difficulties within the technique of socio-economic improvement, to start up body of workers education, and to advertise China's high-tech agencies via its energetic engagement in those components.

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In terms of agriculture, it will enter into the ecological, highly efficient and sustainable development age. It will not only keep its traditional role to guarantee food safety and national economy, but also take the new missions to alleviate global energy crisis, providing diverse demand and creating a better ecological environment. To achieve this, research breakthroughs must be made to deal with such basic S&T problems as: processes and mechanisms for evolutionary biodiversity, basic sciences and methods for effective breeding, interaction mechanism and control methods among nutrients, soil, water, light, temperature and plants, scientific theory for sustainable land use, the response of agriculture to global change, and food and nutritional structural evolution.

In 1807, Robert Fulton, an American engineer and inventor, invented a ship driven by a steam engine, which resulted in changes in modern transportation by water. The invention of a train was resulted from the steam engine fixed in a vehicle on land. In 1825, G. Stephenson built the first practical rail line, which began an era of railway transportation. · 16 · Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050 The Second Technology Revolution The second technology revolution was a tremendous transformation in the technologies of electricity and electrical apparatus, internal-combustion engines, steel-making, petroleum and new vehicles, which took place in the 1930s and was mainly represented by the technology of electric power and the invention of internalcombustion.

In 1856, Henry Bessemer, an English engineer and inventor, invented the steel-making converter. Manufacture of steel with this process was fast and low in energy consumption. Therefore, it spread quickly. During the period from 1856 to 1864, Carl Wilhelm Siemens, a German engineer, and P. Martin, a French engineer, invented a process called “open hearth steelmaking” which was very economical. In the second half of the 19th century, output of steel increased rapidly. 83 million tons in 1900. In 1882, S.

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