By Dr. Leendert van der Pijl (auth.)

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No special place for the whole; 8. no closed, hard rind; 9. in hard fruits the seeds exposed or dangling. Just as in the pollination classes of flowers, any individual feature can be lacking. Specialized birds are perfectly capable of finding greenish fruits, but the ideal case is a brilliant diaspore, with contrasting colours, preferably assisted by coloured auxiliary organs. Some Sterculia fruits look like two-coloured flowers. In Ocbna the torus and in many Clerodendron species the calyx provides contrasting colours, as do the red arils on black seeds.

The writer has published a monograph on the subject (1957 b), of which the following is an abstract. In tropical Asia and Africa, the old group of Macrochiroptera (fundamentally fruit-eaters) has a large influence. , separately in the subfamilies Stenoderminae, Phyllonycterinae and Glossophaginae. As experience with expatriate fruits teaches, the attractiveness of bat-fruits is international, obviously depending on some general preference in bats. The taste and consistency can vary between hard-sour and soft-sweet, but otherwise a syndrome of general characteristics can easily be recognized, in accordance with the ethology and sense physiology of the bats.

G. VERHEY (El Arish, Queensland) found in the excrements of cassowaries the large fruit kernels of Pandanus pedunculatus, Elaeocarpus grandis, Davidsonia pruriens, Pleiogynium solandri and wild mangoes. Nowadays seeds of some Cycadaceae (Zamia and Macrozamia) are dispersed by birds, the latter by emus. Many ground birds, e. , tropical Tinamus, specialize in fallen fruits. c) The Syndrome of Bird Diaspores. Birds have only a weak sense of smell, or none at all, and are purely visual animals. In recent experiments on pigeons with amylacetate the lowest concentration producing "olfactory" reaction was double the maximum allowed in factories to avoid irritation of eyes and throat.

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