By K.S. Sorbie

The significance of oil on the earth economic climate can't be overstated, and techniques for recuperating oil would be the topic of a lot medical and engineering examine for a few years to come back. Even after the appliance of basic depletion and secondary restoration approaches (usually waterflooding), a lot oil frequently is still in a reservoir, and certainly in a few heterogeneous reservoir platforms up to 70% of the unique oil might stay. hence, there's a massive incentive for the improvement of more advantageous or more desirable tools of oil restoration, geared toward getting better a few part of this remainil)g oil. The innovations used diversity from 'improved' secondary flooding tools (including polymer and likely fuel injection techniques) via to 'enhanced' or 'tertiary' equipment reminiscent of chemical (surfactant, caustic, foam), gasoline miscible (carbon dioxide, fuel reinjection) and thermal (steam soak and force, in-situ combustion). the excellence among the category ofthe tools frequently refers back to the aim oil that the method seeks to get well. that's, in 'improved' restoration we're often aiming to extend the oil sweep potency, while in 'tertiary' restoration we target to mobilise and recuperate residual or capillary­ trapped oil. There are a couple of books and collections of articles which provide basic overviews of enhanced and stronger oil restoration equipment. even if, for every restoration process, there's one of these wide selection of interconnected concerns in regards to the chemistry, physics and fluid mechanics of stream in porous media, that infrequently are those properly reviewed.

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1982) to assay for 0-acetyl groups, pyruvate ketals and uronic acids. Further discussion of such methods is beyond the scope of this work. 2 The chemical detection of polyacrylamide The earliest chemical methods developed for the assay of polyacrylamide were based on turbidimetric methods in which the polymeric material was reacted with a reagent to form a barely soluble turbid compound. A method based on the reaction of hydrolysed polyacrylamide with a quaternary ammonium cation was proposed by Michaels and Morelos (1955).

He showed that some of the modified acrylamide polymers exhibit improved performance compared with conventional HPAM, in so far as these modified materials generate higher viscosities in brine. In this work, a very large number of new STRUCTURE OF THE MAIN POLYMERS USED IN lOR 35 synthetic polymers-mostly acrylamide co-polymers-were synthesised. Here, no attempt will be made to summarise the findings of this very large body of work. It is sufficient to note that significant improvements in some properties at least were achieved in polymer molecule design in the course of this work.

A number of other empirical equations which correlate polymer viscosity over a wide range of concentrations are reviewed by Ott (1955). 2 Chain size and the molecular expansion factor Consider a linear polymer made up of monomer segments of length a. 27) However, this describes a completely random orientation problem where each segment may double back on adjacent segments and may approach and touch parts of the polymer chain. For a real polymer, this would not be the situation; a first improvement in this situation may describe the average end-to-end size of a chain which was constricted to have a constant bond angle-as would occur in a polymer such as polythene, -(CH 2 -CH 2 ) .

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