By Andrés G Muñoz

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Furthermore, efficient dyes contain Ru, an expensive and scarce material [3]. Now, we return briefly to the inorganic materials, since an alternative to replace the organic dyes for electron injection in the conduction band is the use of nanosized semiconducting particles. The reduction of the semiconductor dimensions under the de Broglie wavelength leads to a quantization of the permitted energy levels. The influence of the dimensionality on the electronic properties of nanostructures can be exemplified by solving the Schrödinger equation of an electron gas of radius R surrounded by an infinitely large potential wall.

Since its first report, continuous improvements are being reported for this cell concept. 4% [12]. In spite of the evident advantages of this cell, such as the utilization of abundant and low cost TiO2 and its easy assembly, the toxicity of the used electrolyte (iodide/ iodine solution in acetonitrile) is a matter for further work. Furthermore, efficient dyes contain Ru, an expensive and scarce material [3]. Now, we return briefly to the inorganic materials, since an alternative to replace the organic dyes for electron injection in the conduction band is the use of nanosized semiconducting particles.

As a result, two electronhole pairs are formed for one absorbed photon and a larger fraction of the high photon energy part of the sunlight spectrum is converted into electrical or chemical energy. 14 represents the working principle of the hot carrier cells. It consists of the slowdown of the thermalization of highly energetic photogenerated charge carriers, owing to their interaction with the phonons, so that they can be caught at energies higher than that of the semiconductor band gap [60]. This concept was realized by formation of selective energy contacts based on resonancetunnel level, which arise from a single layer of quantum dots [61,62].

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