By Geoffrey S. Nathan
This textbook introduces the reader to the sphere of phonology, from allophones to faithfulness and exemplars. It assumes no past wisdom of the sector, and features a short evaluation bankruptcy on phonetics. it truly is written in the framework of Cognitive Linguistics, yet covers quite a lot of historic and modern theories, from the Prague university to Optimality conception. whereas many examples are according to American and British English, there also are discussions of a few features of French and German colloquial speech and phonological research difficulties from many different languages around the globe. as well as the fundamentals of phoneme concept, positive aspects, and morphophonemics there are chapters on informal speech, first and moment language acquisition and historic swap. a last bankruptcy covers a couple of matters in modern phonological concept, together with the various vintage debates in Generative Phonology (rule ordering, abstractness, ‘derivationalism’) and suggestions for usage-based phonologies.
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Extra info for Phonology: A Cognitive Grammar Introduction
For example, French has dental stops [t ̪ d̪ n̪ l ̪], but alveolar fricatives [s, z]. A narrow phonetic chart would put them in different columns, but a phonemic chart would assign them to the same column, calling them something more neutral, such as ‘Coronal’. A similar decision will put French palatoalveolar [∫, Š] in the same column as palatal [\], especially since no language distinguishes between palato-alveolar and palatal nasals (in fact, there isn’t even an IPA symbol for a palato-alveolar nasal).
I should mention that there are other views of the phoneme that you should be aware of. Within the British tradition, Daniel Jones (best known as the father of the Cardinal Vowels) viewed allophones as members of a family of sounds, with the phoneme being the name given to the family itself, and the particular name for the phoneme being chosen as a matter of mnemonic convenience. Others have argued that the actual phoneme (that is, the unit of mental storage) is not an actual sound at all, but an abstract specification of only those features of the sound that make it different from all the other sounds in the language.
Recent phonological work suggests that moving tones can, in general, be considered sequences of level tones (so that falling tones could be represented as a sequence of High and Low). Lastly there is stress. Stress is a feature that is easy to talk about but difficult to define with any degree of confidence. Traditionally it has been identified with loudness, but stressed syllables are not necessarily louder. If we measure stressed syllables and compare with otherwise identical unstressed syllables we see that they are, all other things being equal, louder, longer and exhibit a sharp pitch jump.