By Eckard Rehbinder, E. Rehbinder, M. Engelhard, K. Hagen, R. B. Jørgensen, R. Pardo-Avellaneda, A. Schnieke, F. Thiele (auth.)
Recent clinical advances have made it attainable to provide biopharmaceuticals in genetically transformed crops and animals, corresponding to maize, tobacco, goats, and chickens. This new department of biotechnology is called pharming, composed of the phrases prescription drugs and farming. Pharming constitutes an overlap of pink and eco-friendly biotechnology. It bargains the possibility of a speedier, more cost-effective, and extra versatile construction of biopharmaceuticals in comparison with present construction procedures. it is a promising standpoint in mild of the speedily transforming into industry of biopharmaceuticals, even if the industrial competitiveness of pharming continues to be confirmed. in addition to attainable advantages for manufacturers, sufferers and health and wellbeing care structures, pharming additionally increases a couple of complicated ecological, social, ethical and felony questions that experience as but no longer been completely mentioned.
The current ebook includes the findings of an interdisciplinary study undertaking that has addressed a wide range of questions linked to pharming: An research of the state of the art of plant pharming and animal pharming applied sciences is via an evaluate of environmental dangers relating to pharming and welfare dangers for pharming animals. Public perspectives and attitudes to pharming are investigated at the foundation of a finished survey in 15 nations. furthermore, moral and felony questions, posed through current and foreseeable destiny practices of pharming, are analysed. The concluding bankruptcy provides the authors’ major findings and proposals, addressed to technological know-how, undefined, politics and common public drawn to the possibilities and hazards of this upcoming box of biotechnology.
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Extra info for Pharming: Promises and risks of biopharmaceuticals derived from genetically modified plants and animals
In the past two decades ES cells have been a powerful tool for the experimental manipulation of the mammalian genome. This work has, however, been largely restricted to mice, and only in mice has an ES genotype been transmitted through the germ line. Efforts have been made to derive ES lines from other mammals and there are reports of ES-like cells in hamster, mink, sheep, cattle, pig, monkey, rabbit, rat and human, but none so far have been germ line competent. Human ES cells remain untestable in this respect for obvious ethical reasons.
In mice it offers a lower incidence of founder mosaicism and a greater efficiency of transgenesis than standard DNA microinjection, particularly for large transgenes. In pigs, however, the efficiency of transgenesis and number of live born piglets obtained has so far been very low. One problem is failure of the injected sperm head to properly decondense and form a male pronucleus. In summary, sperm-mediated gene transfer by natural fertilization has not yet proved a reliable method of producing transgenic animals.
For further background see a review by Pfeifer59. Two publications, describing the production of pigs carrying a green fluorescent protein reporter transgene, illustrate the high rate of transgenesis obtained using lentivirus vectors. Alexander Pfeiffer and Eckhard Wolf of the Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich used a vector based on human immunodeficiency virus and report 70 % of live born pigs carried a fluorescent protein transgene, of which 94 % expressed the transgene60. Bruce Whitelaw and colleagues of the Roslin Institute, Scotland obtained similarly high results in pigs using a vector based on equine infectious anaemia virus.