By Reinhard Billet

The emerging pattern in the direction of the operation of packed towers in separation tactics used to be initiated after the power challenge within the seventies. This publication is the 1st of its type which treats the entire very important theoretical and sensible elements for the calculation, layout and operation of those packed towers.

the most functions of packed towers are within the separation of gas-liquid or vapour-liquid platforms. This publication considers all beneficial properties of packed towers for commercial separation vegetation that may be utilized in strategy and environmental know-how. It contains a complete remedy of packed-bed know-how and the benefits of packed towers, similar to the applying of more desirable tools for strength saving reasons, environmental defense measures and the revamping of present vegetation, are basically outlined.

The equipment provided are in keeping with sound actual and mathematical modelling, the validity of that have been proven by means of quite a few experimental investigations played in laboratories and pilot vegetation after which scaled as much as meet sensible, commercial necessities.

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4. 1. 3-2 m = f(Fv)L/V = const. Ap/NTUov H^V/u, = const. 0-2 m HTU L , p L • a = f ( u L ) F v = const. = const. H L = f(F v ) U | = const . ^L tVULjpv = cons t. 2. 78 mol. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2 1/2 s" kg ] Fig. 8. Liquid load as a function of the vapour capacity factor in systems operated at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum. 8. 7. e. 8; and Fig. 8 indicates the wide range of liquid loads encompassed by the rectification tests performed under total reflux with these systems. 9 describe the range of capacities and the physical properties of all the mass transfer systems that were evaluated.

Typical log-log pressure drop diagrams for random beds of packing produced from different materials are reproduced in Figs. 29. An increase in the slope of the pressure drop curves indicates that the loading point has been exceeded. Figs. 31 provide unmistakable evidence to the effect that, if the liquid load is kept constant below the loading point, the liquid holdup is practically independent of the gas load. On the other hand, it increases considerably in the loading range and attains a maximum at the flood point.

4 47 Experimental results Pall rings, metal, ds = 500 mm, Z = 600 1/m2 Methanol/EthanolJ bar, L/V = 1. H = 2 m " _r—| 4 ^ cz —-^ o . i '• • • o— —o- = 12 10 co CD i A vsb- ZD CO -D—^ ] • — o — 50 mm — a — 25 mm — A — 15 mm ' 3 - yr ^ Q . / ^. > > —O" A- u ! ' Vapour capcity factor Fv tm" 1/z s"1 kg 1/2 ] Fig. 12. 7 mbar 6 / a . 2 Vapour capacity factor Fv [m" 1/z s"1 kg 1/z ] Fig. 13. 4 49 Experimental results Metallic rings, ds=220 mm, Z=2036 1/m2 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene, 67 mbar, L/V=1, H=15 m 38-mm Pall ring N=14301 irr3 — o — VSP ring 1 N = 30948 rrr3 —^— 50-mm Pall ring N=6000 m"3 — o - VSP ring 2 N = 7621 m"3 ••••A--- a Z3 CO i 6 E •te _ co CO <±> 6 / fcr .

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