By Kathy B. Burck M.D., Ph.D., Edison T. Liu M.D., James W. Larrick M.D., Ph.D. (auth.)
"Cancer viruses" have performed a paradoxical position within the heritage of melanoma examine. came upon in 1911 via Peyton Rous (1) on the Rockefeller Institute, they have been mostly missed for numerous a long time. Witness his eventual popularity for a Nobel Prize, yet now not till 1966-setting an all time list for latency, and testimony to at least one extra good thing about sturdiness. within the Fifties, one other Rockefeller Nobelist, Wendell Stanley, spearheaded a crusade to concentration consciousness on viruses as etiological brokers in melanoma, his plat shape having been the chemical characterization of the tobacco mosaic virus as a natural protein-correction, ribonucleoprotein-in 1935 (2). This doctrine was once a centerpiece of the U.S. nationwide melanoma campaign of 1971: if human cancers have been attributable to viruses, the primary job used to be to isolate them and get ready vaccines for immunization. At that time, many observers felt that maybe an excessive amount of recognition was once being dedicated to melanoma viruses. It was once difficult even if viruses performed an etiological function in additional than a handful of human cancers.
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Additional resources for Oncogenes: An Introduction to the Concept of Cancer Genes
Nature 290:261, 1981. Assays Using Intact Organisms 37 Shih C, Shilo B-Z, Goldfarb MP, et aL Passage of phenotypes of chemically transformed cells via transfection of DNA and chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5714, 1979. Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Bioi 98:503, 1975. Watson JD, Crick FHC. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature 171 :737-738, 1953. Watson JD, Tooze J, Kurtz DT.
Several human cancers, including those of the prostate, 46 3. 2. Electron micrograph of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infecting a lung. Particles are visible within the cytoplasm (large arrowheads) and intranuclearly (small arrowheads) x 16,100. (Kindly provided by S. Kunkel, R. ) colon, and cervix, have detectable CMV sequences. However, normal human tissue is found as frequently to be associated with CMV sequences, suggesting merely that CMV is ubiquitous and not necessarily associated with neoplastic transformation in these cases.
C encodes the viral core protein. The P region partially overlaps regions C and X and completely overlaps region S. The translation product is the hepatitis DNA polymerase, a 90,OOO-dalton basic protein resembling retrovirus reverse transcriptase. The X region is more mysterious. In several sUbtypes examined, the protein product was predicted to be 145 to 154 amino acids in length. 4. Hepatitis B (HBV) genome and protein products. Genes S, C, and region P code for viral structural proteins. Region X may encode a transforming region, although this theory has not been proved.