By Hajime Fujisawa (auth.), Dominique Bagnard Ph.D. (eds.)

Cell adhesion is likely one of the most crucial houses controlling embryonic improvement. tremendous special cell-cell contacts are proven in response to the character of adhesion molecules which are expressed at the cellphone floor. The identifica­ tion of a number of households of adhesion molecules, good conserved all through evolu­ tion, has been the root of a large amount of paintings over the last two decades that contributed to set up features of mobile adhesion in just about all organs. these days, phone adhesion molecules aren't simply regarded as mobile glue yet are idea to play severe roles in mobile signaling. Their skill to persuade mobilephone proliferation, mi­ gration, or differentiation relies on either phone floor adhesion houses and acti­ vation of intracellular pathways. the following problem might be to appreciate how those molecules have interaction with one another to make sure particular features within the morphogen­ esis of very refined structures. certainly, by means of exploring the mobile and molecular mechanisms of apprehensive process improvement, the crowd of H. Fujisawa in Japan pointed out in 1987 an adhesion molecule, neuropilin, hugely expressed within the neuro­ pile of amphibian optic tectum. Ten years later, teams chanced on that neuropilin is a receptor for assistance indications of the semaphorin family members. Axon information is a serious step in the course of mind improvement and the mechanisms making sure progress cone navigation are starting to be good understood. The semaphorins are bifunctional indications defining permissive or inhibitory pathways sensed via the expansion cone.

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E) Summary of commissural misrouting phenotypes in neuropilin-2 mutant mice. 5 embryos. NEUROPILINS AS SEMAPHORIN RECEPTORS 27 The strongest case for guidance through a gradient is provided by the analysis of Sema3A effects on cortical pyramidal neurons. 12,48 Normally, these axons project away from the pia towards the ventricular surface. 48 They were found to extend axons away from a nearby marginal zone, but to extend axons in random directions if they were positioned on deep cortical layers at a distance from the marginal zone.

IN VIVO FUNCTIONS OF NEUROPILINS IN NERVOUS SYSTEM WIRING DURING DEVELOPMENT A combination of in vitro studies, embryological studies in chicken embryos, and genetic analysis in mice has suggested important roles for neuropilins as receptors mediating repulsive actions of class 3 Semaphorins to direct various aspects of NEUROPILINS AS SEMAPHORIN RECEPTORS 21 nervous system wiring. To facilitate a review of the literature, we break down the suggested functions of neuropilins into three categories: regulation of axon fasciculation, regulation of axon guidance and cell migration through creation of exclusion zones, and directional guidance of axons and dendrites based on detection of Semaphorin gradients.

Cell 1993; 75:217-227. 4. Puschel AW, Adams RH, Betz H. Murine semaphorin D/collapsin is a member of a diverse gene family and creates domains inhibitory for axonal extension. Neuron 1995; 14:941-948. 5. Luo Y, Shepherd I, Li J et al. A family of molecules related to collapsin in the embryonic chick nervous system. Neuron 1995; 14:1131-1140. 6. Adams RH, Betz H, Puschel AW. A novel class of murine semaphorins with homology to thrombospondin is differentially expressed during early embryogenesis.

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