By H. Sandermann (auth.), Prof. Dr. Heinrich Sandermann (eds.)

A well-structured and finished precis of the concepts and a number of other case reports for utilising molecular plant genomics within the fields of plant ecotoxicology and plant ecology. With a growing number of plant genome initiatives now being accomplished, there arises the necessity to advance plant practical genomics. The publication concentrates on ecological features and relates molecular tension responses and signalling pathways to environmental interactions. This paves the best way for uncovering new mechanisms of plant health, inhabitants dynamics and evolution, and new percentages for plant breeding and sustainable agriculture. issues lined comprise: definition and up-scaling of molecular ecotoxicology; signalling elements, enzymes and genes taken with defence opposed to pathogens, xenobiotics, ozone, UV-B and extra environmental stressors; and manipulation of plant sign transduction via soil bacteria.

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2002). However, perhaps more importantly we do not know the genetic origins of the regulatory switch(es) that cause the constitutively high levels of expression of GSTs in crops. 2 Herbicide Safeners and GST Regulation Herbicide safeners are compounds that enhance herbicide tolerance in cereal crops largely by increasing the expression of detoxifying enzymes including GSTs. As weIl as enhancing GSTs, safeners also increase the synthesis of glutathione and the levels of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins that deposit the herbicide conjugates in the vacuole, thereby co-ordinately increasing the capacity of the glutathione conjugation detoxification pathway (Davies and Caseley 1999).

In every case where correlations between enhancement of GST Metabolism by Glutathione S-Transferases 27 activity and expression of the respective genes have been examined, it appears that increases in GST activity can be accounted for by an increase in the levels of the respective proteins brought ab out by increased translation of the respective mRNA resulting from gene induction (Jepson et al. 1994). However, in many cases while it has been reported that transcripts apparently encoding GSTs accumulate in response to these diverse stress treatments, the subsequent effect on GST activities in planta has not been reported.

Examples of conjugation reactions with endogenous metabolites are shown in Fig. 4. Significantly, the importance of these detoxification reactions in vivo is supported by the observation that a mercapturic acid conjugate of the major stress metabolite 4-hydroxynon-2-enal has been identified in rat urine (Alary et al. 1995). 4A-C. Glutathione conjugation of endogenous metabolites. A Conjugation with 4-hydroxynon-2-enal. B Conjugation with 9,10epoxystearic acid showing the two possible products. C Reversible conjugation with isoliquiritigenin OH ~O 4-hydroxynon-2-enal t+ GSH ~O SG B o o OH 9,10-epoxystearic acid • +GSH o OHSG OH or o SGOH OH c HO~H l,o-OH vy o Isoliquiritigenin "---J + GSH HO~H ~ 0 vy 0 0H "-------J R.

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