By Y. P. S. Bajaj (auth.), Professor Dr. Y. P. S. Bajaj (eds.)

Medicinal and fragrant crops XI contains 24 chapters. It bargains with the distribution, significance, traditional propagation, micropropagation, tissue tradition reports, and the in vitro creation of vital medicinal and pharmaceutical compounds in quite a few species of Anagallis, Azadirachta, Centranthus, Costus, Cuphea, Dioscorea, Drosera, Fagara, Frangula, Hyacinthus, Hypericum, Jamesoniella, Karwinskia, Lactarius, Lactuca, Marribium, Menispermum, Ornithopus, Petroselinum, Phellodendron, Solanum, Solidago, and Zanthoxylum. just like the earlier ten volumes released among 1988 and 1998, it truly is adapted to the desires of complicated scholars, lecturers, and study scientists within the box of pharmacy, plant tissue tradition, phytochemistry, biomedical engineering, and plant biotechnology quite often.

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The vilasinin group is widespread in the Meliaceae and is assumed to contain intermediates in the biosynthesis of the C-seco meliacins such as the nimbins, nimbolides, salannins and probably the azadirachtins. J. Allan et al. have good insect antifeedant activity. The gedunin group, formed from azadirone and its derivatives, have been isolated from neem seed oil, bark and seeds (Lavie et al. 1971; Kraus et al. 1981). Many show biological activity for example as antifeedants against termites or as antimalarial agents (Khalid et al.

The seed kernels yield about 45% neem oil and 55% neem cake. Powdered neem seed, kernels or neem cake can be used as insecticides although they may need to be diluted with inert material before use. Aqueous extracts of these same materials may also be used since, although azadirachtin itself is only slightly soluble in water, other,components present in the seeds increase its solubility (Hellpap and Dreyer 1995). Aqueous extracts of neem seeds may be prepared and used locally but the active ingredients tend to decompose rapidly.

The formation of The International Table 3. Media used for optimal callus initiation in Azadirachta indica A. Juss Reference Explant Basal medium Plant growth regulators (mgr') Sarkar and Datta (1983) Sarkar et a!. (1988) Schulz (1984) Narayan and Jaiswal (1985) Subba Rao et a!. 05 BA 2 or 5 2,4-D + 1 IAA Ramesh and Padhya (1988) Ramesh and Padhya (1990) Leaves and petioles Leaves Leaves, cotyledons and stems Leaves and cotyledons Leaves Wood and Braun Wood and Braun Gautam et al. (1987, 1993) Subramani eta!.

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