By Evelin Lindner

Whilst the statue of Saddam Hussein fell and Iraqis danced at the physique, hitting it with their sneakers, there has been pleasure. Moments later, whilst an American soldier climbed the statue to put an American flag at the face, there has been a countrywide gasp, a second of humiliation for the Iraqis. american citizens had claimed to be releasing them, however the putting of the yankee flag used to be an indication of conquest. The flag was once quick got rid of and changed with an Iraqi flag, yet these annoying moments have been a quick instance of the ability and almost certainly far-reaching, unstable results of humiliating acts, even if unintended. during this attention-grabbing paintings, Dr. Linder examines and explains, throughout historical past and countries, how this little-understood, often-overlooked emotion sparks outrage, uprisings, clash and war.With the insights of a pro psychologist and peace student, the analytical ability of a linguist who speaks seven languages, and the scholarship of a Columbia collage professor, Lindner explains which phrases and activities can humiliate, how the sufferer perceives these phrases and activities, what the results were, and the way participants and firms can paintings to prevent cases sooner or later. From acts of humiliation in Nazi Germany to intentional humiliations comparable to these at Abu Graib, from occasions throughout the bloodbaths in Rwanda and Somalia, to precursors to the assaults at the dual Towers in ny, Lindner bargains bright examples to provide an explanation for how humiliation might be on the middle of overseas clash.

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Additional resources for Making Enemies: Humiliation and International Conflict (Contemporary Psychology)

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Hierarchy, inequality, and stratification can very well coexist with the absence of ranking. Robert W. Fuller13 describes this in his book Somebodies and Nobodies. According to Fuller, humiliation is not the use of rank, but the abuse of rank. The pilot in a plane or the captain of a ship are masters over their passengers when in the sky or at high sea. Clear hierarchy and stark inequality characterize these situations. The pilot and the captain, however, need not look down on their passengers as lesser beings.

Aristocrats had more honor than other people, but everybody cared for the honor allotted to him in the appropriate way. Thomas Scheff, researcher on the sociology of emotions, tells a story in Yiddish and English that illustrates how the honor of masters was not the same as the honor of underlings (2002 in Oslo). “Two Jews get into a fight,” Tom recounts. “Neither manages to win the quarrel. ” This, explains Tom, is the first joke, because duels were something for aristocrats, not for insignificant Jewish underlings.

The word concord stems from Latin cum which means with and cord which means heart. Concord means that our hearts are with each other. Once the Cure, Now the Disease 31 The word conflict, however, comes from verb flectere, to bend, to curve. In conflict, discord displaces concord and may lead to confrontation. The word confrontation entails the Latin word frons which means forehead. In confrontation, foreheads are placed against each other, in opposition. Thus, the term conflict, similar to the terms victimhood and trauma, is dependent on the particular framing of reality adopted by the players and the overall social mind-set within which the incident occurs.

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