By Kent Bach, Robert M. Harnish

"The paintings of Bach and Harnish represents an capable test through a thinker and a linguist respectively to revive a few sorely wanted naturalistic assumptions to the learn of linguistic communication."

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Sample text

It would be a mistake to assume that all nonliteral uses of language, or even just all metaphor, must be indicated by any single sort of cue or violation of presumptions. In our examples so far, nonliterality has been signaled in at least four ways: Contradiction or anomaly: The future is now. Conceptual truth: No man is an island. Obvious factual falsehood: She's a gazelle. Obvious factual truth: I wasn't born yesterday. In the first two cases conceptual knowledge, plus context, is sufficient to trigger completion of the nonliteral strategy.

Suggestives and suppositives that P are not expressions of belief that P. In suggesting (conjecturing, hypothesizing) that P, S expresses merely the belief that there is reason to believe that P, but not sufficient reason to believe it. And in supposing (assuming, postulating) that P, what S expresses is the belief that it is worth considering the consequences of P, irrespective of whether it is true that P. Here S is likely to have the perlocutionary intention that H is to expect S to take up a discussion of P or its consequences.

11) a. b. That is That is That is That is a cold car. (by Rl) a slow car. (from (lOa) by R2) afast car. (by R2) a slow car. (from (lla) by Rl) Is there an example that uses R2 and R3? One can exaggerate a metaphor: S utters "She's a gazelle today," referring to someone who moves none too gracefully on the court, but is doing better today. H can infer: (12) a. She is moving most gracefully today. (by R2) b. She is moving very well (better) today. (from (l2a) by R3) But these inferences cannot easily be reversed because e is already a metaphor before exaggeration.

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