By David Feldman

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Additional info for Life's Imponderables: The Answers to Civilization's Most Perplexing Questions : Why Do Clocks Run Clockwise? When Do Fish Sleep? Why Do Dogs Have Wet Noses?

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But there is a way to answer this question. Success of the parallelism theorem, in particular, provides validational support for whatever response measure was used. Rating and magnitude estimation have equal opportunity to meet this validational criterion. The parallelism theorem is a neutral judge. As noted in a previous comment on the work of Marks (1974): "From this position, the difference between ratings and magnitude estimation becomes open to empirical investigation. Both response methods suffer various biases, and the main goal is to improve the methods.

Some writers have seen no way to answer this question. Neither method can be trusted, they argue. Instead, psychological measurement theory should be built on some other foundation. But there is a way to answer this question. Success of the parallelism theorem, in particular, provides validational support for whatever response measure was used. Rating and magnitude estimation have equal opportunity to meet this validational criterion. The parallelism theorem is a neutral judge. As noted in a previous comment on the work of Marks (1974): "From this position, the difference between ratings and magnitude estimation becomes open to empirical investigation.

This same metric sense may underlie ratings of heaviness, expectancy, hedonic value, and other qualities of everyday life. The linearity of the rating method, and indeed the metric sense itself, may derive from motor skills in local space. From infancy onwards, accurate movement is important for survival. The graphical form of the rating scale, which is the usual form with children, may thus embody perceptual-motor skills. The INTEGRATION PSYCHOPHYSICS 43 numerical rating scales used with adults may be derivative from this perceptualmotor representation.

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