By G. P. Baker, P. M. S. Hacker

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And like Nolan's, his warnings went unheeded. CHAPTER 2 Sense and Force: the Evolution of the Species 1 The background environment Inspired by the Tractatus and taking encouragement from the writings of Tarski and Camap, troops of philosophers have charged off in the direc­ tion of elaborating theories of meaning for natural languages on the foundation of the principle that the meaning of a sentence is its truth­ conditions. They conceive of such a theory as a finite array of axioms (the definitions of the primitive terms of the language) and a finite set of principles (specifications of how each of the formation- and transformation­ rules which suffice to deliver all well-formed type-sentences contributes to determining the meaning of a complex expression from the meanings of its parts).

McDowell (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1976), p. 74. 4 M. A. E. Dummett, Truth and Other Enigmas (Duckwotth, London, 1978), p. 450. 5 M. A. E. ', in Mind and Language, ed. S. Guttenplan (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975), p. 72. • ). J. Katz, Propositional Structure and Il/ocutionary Force: A Study of the Contribution ofSentence Meaning to Speech Acts (Harvester, Sussex, 1977), p. g. G. Gazdar, follow philosophers in defining pragmatics simply as what lies outside truth­ conditional semantics.

Frege shows the influence of these ideas in his convictions that the assertoric force of an utterance is bound up with the indicative mood of the verb9 and that the assertoric utterance of a sentence is the outward counterpart of a psychological act of judging a thought to be true. ', and 'Beggars shall be riders' each present the same proposition, adding that in the first this is asserted, in the second presented as the object of a doubt and in the third as the object of a volition. raie et Raisonnee, chs XIII and XVI.

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