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Additional info for Introduction to Wind Energy Systems: Basics, Technology and Operation
1 Coefficient of Power cp and Betz’ Law The question of how much of the wind energy can be transferred to the blade as mechanical energy has been answered by the Betz’ law. 25% of the kinetic power in the wind can be converted to mechanical power using a wind turbine, the so called maximum power coefficient or Betz-Number. This number is not higher because the wind on 22 3 Physics of Wind Energy the back side of the rotor must have a high enough velocity to move away and allow more wind through the plane of the rotor.
The drag force acts parallel to the initial direction of movement and the lift force acts perpendicular to it. The lift force is the greater force in normal operating conditions and arises due to the unequal pressure distribution around an aerofoil Fig. 3 Power Coefficients and Principles of Design 21 profile. The pressure on the upper surface is lower than that on the underside, therefore the air has a higher velocity when passing over the upper surface of the profile. 6) where cA is the lift force coefficient.
5 rpm in the figure. Solutions to this problem of maximizing the power output of converters by variable speeds and constant frequency are discussed in connection with the generator. With respect to their working principle, there are two choices for generators: synchronous generators or asynchronous generators. (a) Synchronous generators. All generators use a rotating magnetic field for the generation of electricity. The more force (torque) is applied and the rotational speed is kept constant, the more electricity is generated, but the synchronous generator will still run at the same speed dictated by the frequency of the electrical grid.