By Richard C. Bauer, James P. Birk, Pamela S. Marks

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Additional info for Introduction to Chemistry: A Conceptual Approach, Second Edition

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This is the density of copper. If we know the mass and volume of an object, we can determine its density by substituting directly into the density equation. 00, respectively, Which layer is which substance? 20 Gold (Au) has a greater density than aluminum (Al) because gold has a greater mass per unit volume. 9 g/cm3. All three samples have the same ratio of mass to volume. *At room temperature and at normal atmospheric pressure, except gases at 0 degrees Celsius (°C) and water at 4°C. indd 19 11/7/08 12:34:18 PM 20 Chapter 1 Matter and Energy ANIMATION: Density of Liquids and Solids These samples of metals have the same mass.

Molecules can be either elements or compounds. Models can be constructed using spheres for atoms and combinations of spheres for molecules. indd 35 11/7/08 12:34:54 PM 36 Chapter 1 Matter and Energy Matter can also be classified by its physical state, whether solid, liquid, or gas. Each substance has a set of unique physical and chemical properties. Some physical properties, such as mass, density, or boiling point, derive from measurements using appropriate units. A change in a substance can be classified as either physical or chemical.

The energy of an object is a combination of its kinetic and potential energy. Energy can change from one form to another, and it can be transferred as heat. Energy changes, often in the form of heat, accompany chemical reactions. The scientific method includes a variety of methods of inquiry employed by scientists. Observation, or the collection of data, is a necessary part of the scientific method. It frequently involves the design of carefully controlled experiments. Hypotheses are tentative explanations for the results of experiments.

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