By James Schooley

Written in particular for the horticultural scholar, this new textual content offers a fantastic creation to botany for the nonscience significant. The book's systematic association round the five-kingdom procedure successfully covers the botanical fundamentals, whereas the various illustrations make new clinical innovations effortless to appreciate. by way of basically proposing such issues as breathing, fermentation, photosynthesis, and actual homes of protoplasm, the textual content builds an excellent organic origin for extra examine within the plant sciences.

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This is anaphase I. Cell f Notes f Meiosis Prophase i Reductlon 8 8 Diakinesis recondensation (chromosomes reach their greatest densify) (horndogs are separated from theirpartner, and the fwo are moved to opposite poles) $ (homo/ogouspairs bewme so widely separatedfhaf sifes of cross-overs are evident) of crossing-over) (sister chmmafids am split resurting in four gametes, each witha haploid number of chromosomes. all in the unduplicafedstate) (each chromosome pairs with its homolog) Leptotene condensation become visibleas sister chromatids) flgum 3-6 Meiosis.

A - glucose Figure 4-20 Alpha-glucoseandbeta-glucose. Thedifferencebetween a-glucose and p-glucose is found in the orientation of atoms. Atom orientation affects the linkages when the sugar is polymerized into starch or cellulose. Whereasstarch is composed of a-glucose units, cellulose is composed of b-glucose units. Different kinds of enzymes are involvedin their digestion. Lipids Fats are complex molecules composed of long chains of carbon atoms (fatty acids) linked to a 3-carbon compound called glycerol.

Whenacted on by the enzyme invertase, sucrose is broken down into two molecules of 6-carbon sugar: one of glucose and one of fructose. Sucrose is, thus, a disaccharide. The formula for glucoseas shown at the right in figure 4-16can beabbreviated (see figure 4-18). Starch, then, can be shown as in figure 4-19. Both starch and cellulose are polymers of glucose: yet they are different compounds. Although it is difficultto show on a flatsurface, figure 4-20illustrates the two forms of glucose: alpha-glucose (a-glucose) Figure 4-18 Abbreviation of the glucose formula.

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