By Odden D.

Designed for college kids with just a simple wisdom of linguistics, this best textbook presents a transparent and sensible advent to phonology, the research of sound styles in language. It teaches in a step by step type the logical ideas of phonological research and the elemental theories that underpin it. This completely revised and up-to-date variation teaches scholars tips to learn phonological info, the right way to imagine severely approximately info, how you can formulate principles and hypotheses, and the way to check them. New to this variation: • better examples, over 60 workouts and 14 new challenge units from a large choice of languages motivate scholars to training their very own research of phonological techniques and styles • a brand new and up to date reference record of phonetic symbols and an up-to-date transcription approach, making facts extra obtainable to scholars • extra on-line fabric comprises pedagogical feedback and password-protected resolution keys for teachers

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Aŋgu apsoo amto uʈɨ embo qaʁa ‘pigeon’ ‘shaggy dog’ ‘a province’ ‘hair’ ‘deserted’ ‘alphabet’ aŋʈa˜a˜ amtʃɔɔ ɨγu uβɪɪ ʊʊtsi qaŋba ‘a number’ ‘ear’ ‘uncle’ ‘forehead’ ‘oh-oh’ ‘foot’ aŋba tukʈyy ɨmtʃi eʁa qa qamba ‘duck’ ‘poison snake’ ‘doctor’ ‘bells’ ‘saddle’ ‘pliers’ 37 38 INTRODUCING PHONOLOGY qam kɨkʈi kik kɪɪrii kuptʃɨ kεmbo qo qɔɔʁɔɔ topcaa ʈuγɨ paɴɢɔɔ ‘to dry’ ‘belch’ ‘rubber’ ‘roll over’ ‘900’ ‘headman’ ‘head’ ‘round’ ‘stairs’ ‘harbor’ ‘chest’ qamtoo kɨβu kiʈuu kiiγuu kuptʃaa keγøø qomba tʃheʁa thoʁo˜o˜ ʈuɴɢo pεεβa˜a˜ ‘overland’ ‘crawl’ ‘student’ ‘window’ ‘chair’ ‘head monk’ ‘monastery’ ‘half’ ‘tonight’ ‘China’ ‘frog’ sarβo kɨɨŋguu kɪɪcuu ku kεntʃa kerβa qɔr tʃhuγum ʈaaʁa˜a˜ nεɴɢaa simɢa˜a˜ ‘steep’ ‘trip’ ‘translator’ ‘nine’ ‘contract’ ‘aristocrat’ ‘coat’ ‘cheese’ ‘post office’ ‘important’ ‘build a house’ 12 Kirzan Armenian In this language, certain surface vowels can be predictably derived from other underlying vowels.

A regularity does emerge once we look at what precedes oral versus nasal vowels: when a vowel or glide is preceded by a nasal segment – be it a nasal consonant (including [h̃] which is always nasal in this language), vowel, or glide – then a vowel or glide becomes nasalized. ” (32) vocoid ! nasal / nasal_ The naturalness of this rule should be obvious – the essential property that defines the conditioning class of segment, nasality, is the very property that is added to the vowel: such a process, where a segment becomes more like some neighboring segment, is known as an assimilation.

Nasal / nasal_ The naturalness of this rule should be obvious – the essential property that defines the conditioning class of segment, nasality, is the very property that is added to the vowel: such a process, where a segment becomes more like some neighboring segment, is known as an assimilation. Predictable nasalization of vowels almost always derives from a nasal consonant somewhere near the vowel. Sundanese: a problem for the student to solve. Bearing this suggestion in mind, where do nasalized vowels appear in Sundanese (Indonesia), given these data?

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