By Stone

Experiments investigated how the dissonance that follows a hypocritical habit is diminished whilst 2 choices can be found; an instantaneous procedure (changing habit to make it much less hypocritical) or an oblique technique (the confirmation of an unrelated optimistic element of the self). In scan 1, after dissonance used to be aroused by means of hypocrisy, considerably extra individuals selected to lessen dissonance without delay, regardless of the transparent availability of a self-affirmation approach. In scan 2, members back selected direct answer in their hypocritical discrepancy, even if the chance to verify the self held extra value for his or her worldwide self esteem. The dialogue makes a speciality of the mechanisms that impression how humans pick out between available suggestions for dissonance relief.

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There are of course methodological limitations with this and similar studies linking media violence to later aggression. The fact that the participants reported that they would be more violent is not the same as demonstrating that they actually became more violent. Moreover, they were surveyed immediately after watching the violent films. At this point they were likely to have had high levels of arousal triggered by the exciting films. We cannot assume that once these arousal levels had fallen they would continue to report the same violent tendencies.

Negative punishment might involve the removal of attention, for example by sending the child to their room, or it might mean removing pocket-money or ‘grounding’ them. We shall look more closely at the management of children’s behaviour later in this chapter. 20 THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGY Uncontrollable reinforcers The principles of operant conditioning predict that if an effect consistently follows an action, we will learn that our action caused that effect, regardless of whether or not it was actually our behaviour that led to the effect.

Kohn (1993) has objected to the culture of behaviourism in the workplace, comparing the regimes of reward and punishment with those used by Skinner with his rats. Summary Behavioural psychology is a highly successful and influential perspective, which emphasises the importance of learning behaviour by classical and operant conditioning, and by social learning. The approach places great emphasis on testable concepts and rigorous experimental research. Behavioural psychology has many applications, centring around powerful techniques for changing people’s behaviour.

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