By Matteo Bianchi, Alessandro Moscatelli

This publication seems to be on the universal difficulties either human and robot fingers come upon while controlling the big variety of joints, actuators and sensors required to successfully practice motor initiatives similar to item exploration, manipulation and greedy. The authors undertake an built-in method of discover the keep watch over of the hand in response to sensorimotor synergies that may be utilized in either neuroscience and robotics. Hand synergies are in keeping with goal-directed, mixed muscle and kinematic activation resulting in a discount of the dimensionality of the motor and sensory house, providing a powerful answer for the short and simplified layout of man-made systems.

Presented in elements, the 1st half, Neuroscience, presents the theoretical and experimental foundations to explain the synergistic association of the human hand. the second one half, Robotics, types and Sensing Tools, exploits the framework of hand synergies to raised keep an eye on and layout robot palms and haptic/sensing systems/tools, utilizing a discounted variety of keep an eye on inputs/sensors, with the aim of pushing their effectiveness with regards to the traditional one.

Human and robotic fingers provides a invaluable reference for college students, researchers and architects who're attracted to the learn and layout of the factitious hand.

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It H. Marino · M. Bianchi Research Center “E. Piaggio”, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy M. Bianchi Department of Advanced Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa, Italy © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 M. Bianchi and A. 1007/978-3-319-26706-7_4 41 42 A. Leo et al. e. bones, muscles or joints) than needed for accomplishing particular tasks, leading to an excess of degrees of freedom. The multiple combinations of these degrees of freedoms lead to many possible strategies for movement execution.

Wu YH, Zatsiorsky VM, Latash ML (2012) Multi-digit coordination during lifting a horizontally oriented object: synergies control with referent configurations. Exp Brain Res 222(3):277– 290. 1007/s00221-012-3215-4. gov/pubmed/22910900 24. Zatsiorsky VM, Latash ML (2008) Multi-finger prehension: an overview. J Motor Behav 40:446–476 25. Zatsiorsky VM, Gregory RW, Latash ML (2002) Force and torque production in static multifinger prehension: biomechanics and control. I. Biomechanics. Biol Cybern 87(1):1–19.

This result is consistent with findings from previous studies on multi-digit force synergies [15, 23, 25] using a manipulandum with fixed digit locations. Despite the large variability in digit CoPx,y , the first two force synergies accounted for nearly all the variability in fingers forces. These results supports the above proposition that digit normal forces were modulated to compensate for the 3 Digit Position and Force Synergies During Unconstrained Grasping 39 variability in digit locations.

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