By Paul T. Anastas, Lauren G. Heine, and Tracy C. Williamson (Eds.)

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This process very rapidly attacks hydrocarbon organic materials through abstraction of the hydrogen, leaving activated sites where reaction with atomic oxygen is initiated. The effect is low-temperature dry removal of the organic matrix leaving a residual, water-soluble ash of chlorides, fluorides, etc. The removal of organics without oxidation of contaminating metals is, therefore, one important feature of the ENVIRO™ process. In addition to microwave plasma, the chamber is equipped with RIE process capability.

These gases are compatible with standard fab operation. A scrubber is normally used to remove the products from the exhaust line in the conventional manner as is done with all fab equipment handling the same gases. The same safety considerations apply with respect to equipment and chemistries for the Enviro™ process as for conventional plasma etching processes. From the standpoint of safety, however, far more important than the choice of equipment is the elimination of toxic and hazardous acids and solvents to which the manufacturing personnel are constantly exposed.

It is essential that the TiN on top remains intact and that the TiW underneath does not become undercut. This can be accomplished with appropriate control of gas composition, plasma intensity, and wafer temperature during the solubilization process. We are working with several semiconductor manufacturers to evaluate these new processes in their manufacturing lines. Such evaluations are costly and time consuming. "Lots" of wafers must be split at each process step where the new process is used. Half of the lot passes through the conventional process and the other half passes through the new process.

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