By Glenn E. Curtis

Within the early Nineteen Nineties, the Caucasus took its position one of the areas of the realm having violent post-Cold conflict ethnic clash. numerous wars broke out within the quarter as soon as Soviet authority ceased protecting the lid on disagreements that were fermenting for many years. (Joseph V. Stalin's forcible relocation of ethnic teams after the redrawing of the region's political map was once a major resource of the friction of the 1990s.) therefore, the 3 republics committed severe assets to army campaigns in a interval while the necessity for inner restructuring was once paramount.

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Louis R. Mortimer Chief Federal Research Division Library of Congress Washington, D C. 20540-5220 Acknowledgments The authors are indebted to numerous individuals and organizations who gave their time, research materials, and expertise on affairs in the nations of the Transcaucasus to provide data, perspective, and material support for this volume. The collection of accurate and current information was assisted greatly by the contributions of Professor Stephen Jones of Mount Holyoke College, Dee Ann Holisky and Betty Blair of Azerbaijan International, and Joseph Masih of the Armenian Assembly of America.

Efforts at enterprise privatization were hindered by the stresses of prolonged military engagements, the staying power of underground economies that had defied control under communist and governments, the lack of commercial expertise, and the lack of a legal infrastructure on which to base new business relationships. As a result, in 1994 the governments were left with oversized, inefficient, and often bankrupt heavy industries whose operation was vital to provide jobs and to revive the national economies.

A February treaty established bilateral barter of vital resources. In March Russia agreed to joint operation of the Armenian Atomic Power Station at Metsamor, whose scheduled 1995 reopening is a vital element in easing the country's energy crisis. Also in March, Armenia replaced its mission in Moscow with a full embassy. In June the Armenian parliament approved the addition of airborne troops to the Russian garrison at Gyumri near the Turkish border. Then in July, Russia extended 100 billion rubles (about US$35 million at that time) for reactivation of the Metsamor station, and Armenia signed a US$250 million contract with Russia for Armenia to process precious metals and gems supplied by Russia.

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