By Aldo V. da Rosa
DSU identify III 2007-2012.
content material: Generalities --
pt. 1. warmth engines. at least thermodynamics and of the kinetic conception of gases --
Mechanical warmth engines --
Ocean thermal strength converters --
Radio-noise turbines --
pt. 2. the realm of hydrogen. gasoline cells --
Hydrogen construction --
Hydrogen garage --
pt. three. strength from the solar. sunlight radiation --
Photovoltaic converters --
pt. four. Wind and water. Wind power --
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To understand why, we must refer to the work of V´ aclav Peterka (1977), which, dropping the empiricism of previous authors, tried to put the analysis of market penetration on a ﬁrmer theoretical basis. Peterka carefully deﬁnes the conditions under which the empirical models hold. † Attributed to numerous sources, from Mark Twain to Niels Bohr to Yogi Berra. 8 Market share of diﬀerent fuels in the United States reported by Marchetti (1976). Plots of ln(f/1-f) vs. time exhibit surprising regularity.
Fossil fuels are still the most inexpensive and most convenient of all energy resources, but their use pollutes the environment, and we are quickly approaching a situation in which we can no longer dismiss the problem or postpone the solution. By far, the most undesirable gas emitted is carbon dioxide whose progressively increasing concentration in the atmosphere (from 270 ppm in the late 1800s to some 365 ppm at present) constitutes a worrisome problem. It is sad to hear inﬂuential people (among them, some scientists) dismiss this problem as inconsequential, especially in view of the growing signs of a possible runaway ecological catastrophe.
Of course, a number of technical problems as well as the high cost of the LEDs must be addressed before they become the standard source of light. ” 24 CHAPTER 1 Generalities American industry’s relative use of energy may decrease even in the face of an expansion of this sector because of the progressive shift of emphasis from an energy-intensive industry, such as iron and steel, to more sophisticated activities that have a low-energy demand per dollar produced. 10 The Ecology Question We have shown that there is an almost unavoidable trend toward increasing energy utilization.