By Kai Sundmacher (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Fuel Cell Engineering
N g þN s þN b X 00 n ik Ai ; (27) i¼1 with n0 ik, n00 ik being the stoichiometric coefficients. In technical systems, the mean-field (MF) approximation is the most frequently applied approach for calculating the chemical reaction rates of the individual reactions in the mechanism (Deutschmann, 2008). In this concept, the local reaction rate is related to the size of the computational grid in the flow field simulation, assuming that the local state of the active surface can be represented by mean values for the cells of the computational grid.
Especially at high temperatures, accurate flow control is essential to avoid temperature drift or peaks in order to observe material limits and safety issues. The BOP can roughly be divided into three sections: upstream and downstream of the reformer/stack unit, and the control system. The fuel feed management consists of fuel pumping, atomization, evaporation, air control, and homogeneous mixing of the reactants to provide accurate Fuel Processing for Fuel Cells 35 pulse-free feed flows. In case of gaseous fuels, flow control is quite easy to handle, whereas atomization, evaporation, and mixing of liquid fuels in air are more challenging.
2000), C2 H5 OH ! CH4 þ CO þ H2 ; DH0298 ¼ þ49kJmolÀ1 ; (21) and to the formation of numerous by-products, such as ethylene, C2 H5 OH ! C2 H4 þ H2 O; DH0298 ¼ þ45kJmolÀ1 ; (22) and acetaldehyde, C2 H5 OH ! CH3 CHO þ H2 ; DH0298 ¼ þ69kJmolÀ1 : (23) Fuel Processing for Fuel Cells 25 POX, 1 C2 H5 OH þ O2 ! 2CO þ 3H2 ; DH0298 ¼ þ14kJmolÀ1 ; 2 (24) presents an alternate route for hydrogen production from ethanol, in particular with rhodium catalysts. POX of ethanol is slightly endothermic, a notable difference to POX of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as methane (natural gas), iso-octane (gasoline), and hexadecane (diesel).